tax, the propriety of, considered with reference to Ireland 379
of money, in modern Europe, all kept, and the value of goods computed, in silver 16
public, paid for the contempt attending their profession 44
cause assigned for the barbarous state of the interior parts of that continent 9
African company
establishment and constitution of 309
receive an annual allowance from parliament for forts and garrisons 310
the company not under sufficient controul 310
history of the Royal African company 311
decline of 311
Rise of the present company 311
the foundation of rank and precedency in rude as well as civilized societies 297
Aggregate fund
in the British finances, explained 388
of the bank of Amsterdam explained 194
of the bank of Hamburgh 195
the agio at Amsterdam, how kept at a medium rate 197
the labour of, does not admit of such subdivisions as manufactures 3
this impossibility of separation prevents agriculture from improving equally with manufactures 3
natural state of, in a new colony 38
requires more knowledge and experience than most mechanical professions, and yet is carried on without any restrictions 53
the terms of rent, how adjusted between landlord and tenant 60
is extended by good roads and navigable canals 62
under what circumstances pasture land is more valuable than arable 63
gardening not a very gainful employment 64
vines the most profitable article of culture 65
estimates of profit from projects very fallacious 65
cattle and tillage mutually improve each other 93
remarks on that of Scotland 93
on that of North America 94
poultry, a profitable article in husbandry 94
hogs 95
dairy 96
evidences of land being completely improved 96
the extension of cultivation, as it raises the price of animal food, reduces that of vegetables 103
by whom and how practised under feudal government 137
its operations not so much intended to increase, as to direct the fertility of nature 149
has been the cause of the prosperity of the British colonies in America 150
the profits of, exaggerated by projectors 154
on equal terms, is naturally preferred to trade 156
artificers necessary to the carrying it on 156
was not attended to by the northern destroyers of the Roman empire 157
the ancient policy of Europe unfavourable to 162
was promoted by the commerce and manufactures of towns 170
the wealth arising from, more solid and durable than that which proceeds from commerce 172
is not encouraged by the bounty on the exportation of corn 207
why the proper business of new companies 251
the present agricultural system of political economy adopted in France, described 275
is discouraged by restrictions and prohibitions in trade 279
is favoured beyond manufactures in China 282
and in Indostan 283
does not require so extensive a market as manufactures 284
to check manufactures in order to promote agriculture, false policy 285
landlords ought to be encouraged to cultivate part of their own land 350
the tax in Spain so called, explained and considered 381
the ruin of the Spanish manufactures attributed to this tax 381
the number of, not the efficient cause of drunkenness 148, 200
Allodial rights
mistaken for feudal rights 168
the introduction of the feudal law tended to moderate the authority of the allodial lords 168
the first motive of their appointment 307
why labour is dearer in North America than in England 29
great increase of population there 29
common rate of interest there 38
is a new market for the produce of its own silver mines 85
improving state of the Spanish colonies there 86
account of the paper currency of the British colonies 134
cause of the rapid prosperity of the British colonies there 150
why manufactures for distant sale have never been established there 156
its speedy improvement owing to assistance from foreign capitals 157
the purchase and improvement of uncultivated land the most profitable employment of capitals 171
commercial alterations produced by the discovery of 181
but two civilized nations found on the whole continent 181
the wealth of the North American colonies increased, though the balance of trade continued against them 203
madeira wine, how introduced there 204
historical review of the European settlements in 229
of Spain 232, 233
of Holland 234
of France 234
of Britain 234
ecclesiastical government in the several European colonies 235
fish a principal article of trade from North America to Spain, Portugal, and the Mediterranean 237
naval stores to Britain 238
little credit due to the policy of Europe from the success of the colonies 242
the discovery and colonization of, how far advantageous to Europe 243
and to America 243
the colonies in, governed by a spirit of monopoly 261
the interest of the consumer in Britain sacrificed to that of the producer, by the system of colonization 274
plan for extending the British system of taxation, over all the provinces of 397, 398
the question, how the Americans could pay taxes without specie, considered 402
ought in justice to contribute to discharge the public debt in Britain 402
expediency of their union with Britain 403
the British empire there a mere project 404
agio of the bank of, explained 194
occasion of its establishment 195
advantages attending payments there 195
rate demanded for keeping money there 195
prices at which bullion and coin are received 196
this bank the great warehouse of Europe for bullion 197
demands upon, how made and answered 197
the agio, how kept at a medium rate 197
the treasure of, whether all preserved in its repositories 198
the amount of its treasure only to be conjectured 198
fees paid to the bank for transacting business 198
for terms of years, and for lives, in the British finances, historical account of 389
the profit on their drugs, unjustly stigmatized as exorbitant 46
the nature and intention of this bond of servitude, explained 42
the limitations imposed on various trades as to the number of apprentices 50
the statute of apprenticeship in England 50
apprenticeships in France and Scotland 51
general remarks on the tendency and operation of long apprenticeships 51
the statute of, ought to be repealed 191
their manner of supporting war 289
three different ways by which a nation may maintain one in a distant country 178
standing, distinction between and a militia 292
historical review of 294
the Macedonian army 294
carthaginian army 294
roman army 294
is alone able to perpetuate the civilization of a country 296
is the speediest engine for civilizing a barbarous country 296
under what circumstances dangerous to, and under what favourable to liberty 296
prohibited by law from going to foreign countries 273
residing abroad, and not returning on notice, exposed to outlawry 273
his army greatly improved by discipline 294
how defeated 294
houses of, in the British colonies, the constitutional freedom of, shewn 240
of bread and ale, remarks on that statute 75, 77
emperor, emancipates the slaves of Vedius Pollio for his cruelty 241
of annual produce and consumption explained 203
may be in favour of a nation, when the balance of trade is against it 203
of trade, no certain criterion to determine on which side it turns between two countries 192
the current doctrine of, on which most regulations of trade are founded, absurd 199
if even, by the exchange of their native commodities, both sides may be gainers 199
how the balance would stand if native commodities on one side were paid with foreign commodities on the other 199
how the balance stands when commodities are purchased with gold and silver 199, 200
the ruin of countries often predicted from the doctrine of an unfavourable balance of trade 202
the credit of their notes how established 118
the nature of the banking business explained 118, 121
the multiplication and competition of bankers, under proper regulations of service to public credit 135
great increase of trade in Scotland since the establishment of them in the principal towns 120
their usual course of business 121
consequences of their issuing too much paper 122
necessary caution for some time observed by them with regard to giving credit to their customers 124
limits of the advances they may imprudently make to traders 125
how injured by the practice of drawing and redrawing bills 126, 127
history of the Ayr bank 128
history of the bank of England 130
the nature and public advantage of banks considered 131
bankers might carry on their business with less paper 132
effects of the optional clauses in the Scotch notes 133
origin of their establishment 194
bank money explained 195
bank of England, the conduct of, in regard to the coinage 226
a doubtful question, whether the government of Great Britain is equal to the management of the bank to profit 344
his account of the quantity of Portugal gold sent weekly to England 225
feudal, their power contracted by the grant of municipal privileges 163
their extensive authority 168
how they lost their authority over their vassals 169
and the power to disturb their country 170
the exchange of one commodity for another, the propensity to, of extensive operation, and peculiar to man 6
is not sufficient to carry on the mutual intercourse of mankind 10
causes of the prosperity of the Dutch settlement there 263
Beaver skins
review of the policy used in the trade for 273
cheaper now in London than in the reign of James I. 63
compared with the prices of wheat at the corresponding times 64
ecclesiastical, the tenure of, why rendered secure 335
the power of collating to, how taken from the pope, in England and France 338
general equality of, among the presbyterians 340
good effects of this equality 340
to what circumstances its early improvement in agriculture and manufactures was owing 9
present miserable state of the country 30
remarks on the high rates of interest there 39
oppressive conduct of the English there, to suit their trade in opium 263
why more remarkable for the exportation of manufactures than of grain 284
brief history of the republic of 164
establishment of the reformation there 338
application of the revenue of the catholic clergy 341
derives a revenue from the interest of its treasure 344
Bills of Exchange
punctuality in the payment of, how secured 126
the pernicious practice of drawing and redrawing explained 126
the arts made use of to disguise this mutual traffic in bills 127
superiority of, how it confers respect and authority 298
the ancient mode of electing them, and how altered 335, 337
natural and political, analogy between 280
account of the tax there on the industry of artificers 366
why given in commerce 183
on exportation, the policy of granting them considered 205
on the exportation of corn 206
this bounty imposes two taxes on the people 207
evil tendency of this bounty 209
the bounty only beneficial to the exporter and importer 209
motives of the country gentlemen in granting the bounty 210
a trade which requires a bounty, necessarily a losing trade 210
tonnage bounties to the fisheries considered 211
account of the white-herring fishery 212
remarks on other bounties 213
a review of the principles on which they are generally granted 267
those granted on American produce founded on mistaken policy 268
how they affect the consumer 274
on the exportation of corn, the tendency of this measure examined 81
why a town of great trade 138
grew to be a powerful colony under neglect 233
the Dutch invaders expelled by the Portuguese colonists 233
computed number of inhabitants there 233
the trade of the principal provinces oppressed by the Portuguese 236
its relative value with butcher's meat compared 62, 63
reasons for transferring the taxes on to the malt 376
how to be erected and maintained 303
Great, evidences that labour is sufficiently paid for there 30
the price of provisions nearly the same in most places 31
great variations in the price of labour 31
vegetables imported from Flanders in the last century 32
historical account of the alterations interest of money has undergone 37
double interest deemed a reasonable mercantile profit 40
in what respects the carrying trade is advantageous to 152, 153
appears to enjoy more of the carrying trade of Europe than it really has 153
it is the only country of Europe in which the obligation of purveyance is abolished 161
its funds for the support of foreign wars inquired into 178, 179
why never likely to be much affected by the free importation of Irish cattle 186
nor salt provisions 186
could be little affected by the importation of foreign corn 187
the policy of the commercial restraints on the trade with France examined 192
the trade with France might be more advantageous to each country than that with any other 202
why one of the richest countries in Europe, while Spain and Portugal are among the poorest 221
review of her American colonies 234
the trade of her colonies, how regulated 236
distinction between enumerated and non-enumerated commodities explained 237
restrains manufactures in America 238, 239
indulgences granted to the colonists 239
constitutional freedom of her colony government 240
the sugar colonies of, worse governed than those of France 241
disadvantages resulting from retaining the exclusive trade of tobacco with Maryland and Virginia 244, 245
the advantage of the colony trade estimated 247
a gradual relaxation of the exclusive trade recommended 250
events which have concurred to prevent the ill effects of the loss of the colony trade 250
the natural good effects of the colony trade more than counterbalance the bad effects of the monopoly 251
to maintain a monopoly, the principal end of the dominion assumed over the colonies 254
has derived nothing but loss from this dominion 254
is perhaps the only state which has only increased its expenses by extending its empire 256
the constitution of, would have been completed by admitting of American representation 258
review of the administration of the East India Company 264, 265
the interest of the consumer sacrificed to that of the producer in raising an empire in America 274
the annual revenue of, compared with its annual rents and interest of capital stock 345, 346
the land-tax of, considered 348
tithes 352
window-tax 357
stamp-duties 363, 365
poll-taxes in the reign of William III. 367
the uniformity of taxation in, favourable to internal trade 382
the system of taxation in, compared with that in France 384
account of the unfunded debt of 387
funded debt 388
aggregate and general funds 388
sinking fund 389
annuities for terms of years and for lives 389
perpetual annuities the best transferable stock 391
the reduction of the public debts during peace bears no proportion to their accumulation during war 392
the trade with the tobacco colonies, how carried on, without the intervention of specie 401
the trade with the sugar colonies explained 401
ireland and America ought in justice to contribute towards the discharge of her public debts 402
how the territorial acquisitions of the East India Company might be rendered a source of revenue 403
if no such assistance can be obtained, her only resource pointed out 403
the money of the great mercantile republic 179
free, the origin of 163
to what circumstances they owed their corporate jurisdictions 163
why admitted to send representatives to parliament 164
are allowed to protect refugees from the country 165
his observation on the laws relating to the settlements of the poor 58, 59
Butcher's meat
nowhere a necessary of life 370
origin of that sect 339
their principles of church government 339
of Lochiel, exercised, within thirty years since, a criminal jurisdiction over his own tenants 168
the French colony there, long under the government of an exclusive company 234
but improved speedily after the dissolution of the company 234
navigable, the advantages of 62
how to be made and maintained 303
that of Languedoc, the support of, how secured 303
may be successfully managed by joint stock companies 317
remarks on his account of the earnings of the labouring poor 28
Cape of Good Hope
causes of the prosperity of the Dutch settlement there 263
in trade, explained, and how employed 112
distinguished into circulating and, fixed capitals 112
characteristic of fixed capitals 113
the several kinds of fixed capitals specified 113
characteristic of circulating capitals, and the several kinds of 114
fixed capitals supported by those which are circulating 114
circulating capitals how supported 114
intention of a fixed capital 116
the expense of maintaining the fixed and circulating capitals illustrated 116
money, as an article of circulating capital, considered 116
money no measure of capital 118
what quantity of industry any capital can employ 120
capitals, how far they may be extended by paper credit 125
must always be replaced with profit by the annual produce of land and labour 136
the proportion between capital and revenue regulates the proportion between industry and idleness 138
how it is increased or diminished 138
national evidences of the increase of 141
in what instances private expenses contribute to enlarge the national capital 142
the increase of, reduces profits by competition 145
the different ways of employing a capital 147
how replaced to the different classes of traders 148
that employed in agriculture puts into motion a greater quantity of productive labour than any equal capital employed in manufacturers 149
that of a manufacturer should reside within the country 150
the operation of capitals employed in agriculture, manufactures, and foreign trade compared 150
the prosperity of a country depends on the due proportion of its capital applied to these three grand objects 151
different returns of capitals employed in foreign trade 152
is rather employed in agriculture than in trade and manufactures, on equal terms 155, 156
is rather employed in manufactures than in foreign trade 156
the natural progress of the employment of 157
acquired by trade, is very precarious, until realized by the cultivation and improvement of land 172
the employment of, in the different species of trade, how determined 183
Capitation taxes
the nature of, considered 367
in England 367
in France 367
land and water, compared 8
water carriage contributes to improve arts and industry in all countries where it can be used 9, 62, 87
land, how facilitated and reduced in price by public works 303
Carrying trade
the nature and operation of, examined 152
is the symptom, but not the cause of national wealth, and hence points out the two richest countries in Europe 153
trades may appear to be carrying trades which are not so 153
the disadvantages of, to individuals 183
the Dutch, how excluded from being the carriers to Great Britain 187, 188
drawbacks of duties originally granted for the encouragement of 205
Carthaginian army
its superiority over the Roman army accounted for 294
Cattle and Corn
their value compared, in the different stages of agriculture 62
the price of, reduced by artificial grasses 63
to what height the price of cattle may rise in an improving country 92, 93
the raising a stock of, necessary for the supply of manure to farms 93
cattle must bear a good price to be well fed 93
great multiplication of European cattle in America 94
are killed in some countries merely for the sake of the hides and tallow 97
the market for these articles more extensive than for the carcase 97
this market sometimes brought nearer home by the establishment of manufactures 97
how the extension of cultivation raises the price of animal food 103
is perhaps the only commodity more expensive to transport by sea than by land 186
great Britain never likely to be much affected by the free importation of Irish cattle 186
parish, the laws relating to, with observations on them 58
Sir Josiah, his observation on trading companies 309
riches unfavourable to the production, and extreme poverty to the raising, of them 33
the mortality still greater among those maintained by charity 33
to what the early improvement in arts and industry there was owing 9
concurrent testimonies of the misery of the lower ranks of the Chinese 30
is not, however, a declining country 30
high rate of interest of money there 40
great state assumed by the grandees 86
the price of labour there lower than in the greater mpart of Europe 87
silver the most profitable article to send thither 87
the proportional value of gold to silver, how rated there 89
the value of gold and silver much higher there than in any part of Europe 101
agriculture favoured there beyond manufactures 282
foreign trade not favoured there 283
extension of the home market 283
great attention paid to the roads there 305, 306
in what the principal revenue of the sovereign consists 353
the revenue of, partly raised in kind 353
the richer the church the poorer the state 341
amount of the revenue of church of Scotland 342
the revenue of the church heavier taxed in Prussia than lay proprietors 351
the nature and effect of tithes considered 352
the dangerous practice of raising money by, explained 127
in traffic, the two different branches of, considered 132
circumstances which contributed to their opulence 165
those of Italy the first that rose to consequence 165
the commerce and manufactures of, have occasioned the improvement and cultivation of the country 170
a supply of, provided for, by public and private foundations for their education 55
curates worse paid than many mechanics 55
of an established religion, why unsuccessful against the teachers of a new religion 330
why they persecute their adversaries 330
the zeal of the inferior clergy of the church of Rome, how kept alive 330
utility of ecclesiastical establishments 331
how connected with the civil magistrate 331, 332
unsafe for the civil magistrate to differ with them 334
must be managed without violence 334, 335
of the church of Rome, one great army cantoned over Europe 335, 336
their power similar to that of the temporal barons during the feudal monkish ages 336
how the power of the Romish clergy declined 337
evils attending allowing parishes to elect their own ministers 339
more plentiful than food in uncultivated countries 68
the materials for, the first articles rude nations have to offer 68
must generally be cheaper than wood to gain the preference for fuel 70
the price of, how reduced 70
the exportation of, subjected to a duty higher than the prime cost of, at the pit 273
the cheapest of all fuel 370
the tax on absurdly regulated 370
Coal mines
their different degrees of fertility 70
when fertile, are sometimes unprofitable by situation 70
the proportion of rent generally paid for 70, 71
the machinery necessary to, expensive 112
Coal trade
from Newcastle to London employs more shipping than all the other carrying trade of England 153
Cochin China
remarks on the principal article of cultivation there 66
stamped, the origin and peculiar advantages of, in commerce 11
the different species of, in different ages and countries 11
causes of the alterations in the value of 11, 12, 13, 14
how the standard coin of different nations came to be of different metals 16
a reform in the English coinage suggested 19
silver, consequences attending the debasement of 82
coinage of France and Britain examined 193
why coin is privately melted down 225
the mint chiefly employed to keep up the quantity thus diminished 225
a duty to pay the coinage would preserve money from being melted or counterfeited 225
standard of the gold coin in France 225
how a seignorage on coin would operate 226
a revenue lost by government defraying the expense of coinage 227
amount of the annual coinage before the late reformation of the gold coin 227
the law for the encouragement of, founded on prejudice 227
consequences of raising the denomination as an expedient to facilitate the payment of public debts 395
adulteration of 397
M., the policy of his commercial regulations disputed 189, 275
his character 275
cause of the depreciation of their money rents inquired into 14
the endowments of, from whence they generally arise 318
whether they have in general answered the purposes of their institution 318
these endowments have diminished the necessity of application in the teachers 319
the privileges of graduates by residence, and charitable foundation of scholarships, injurious to collegiate education 320
discipline of 320
Colliers and Coal-heavers
their high earnings accounted for 43
new, the natural progress of 38
modern, the commercial advantages derived from them 183
ancient, on what principles founded 227, 228
ancient Grecian colonies not retained under subjection to the parent states 228
distinction between the Roman and Greek colonies 228
circumstances that led to the establishment of European colonies in the East Indies and America 228
the East Indies discovered by Vasco de Gama 229
the West, Indies discovered by Columbus 229
gold the object of the first Spanish enterprises there 230
and of all those of all other European nations 231
causes of the prosperity of new colonies 231
rapid progress of the ancient Greek colonies 232
the Roman colonies slow in improvement 232
the remoteness of America and the West Indies greatly in favour of the European colonies there 232
review of the British American colonies 234
expense of the civil establishments in British America 235
ecclesiastical government 235
general view of the restraints laid upon the trade of the European colonies 236
the trade of the British colonies, how regulated 236
the different kinds of non-enumerated commodities specified 237
enumerated commodities 238
restraints upon their manufactures 238
indulgences granted them by Britain 239
were free in every other respect except as to their foreign trade 240
little credit due to the policy of Europe from the success of the colonies 242
throve by the disorder and injustice of the European governments 242
have contributed to augment the industry of all the countries of Europe 243
exclusive privileges of trade a dead weight upon all these exertions both in Europe and America 243
have in general been a source of expense instead of revenue to their mother countries 244
have only benefited their mother countries by the exclusive trade carried on with them 244
consequences of the navigation act 245
the advantage of the colony trade to Britain estimated 247
a gradual relaxation of the exclusive commerce recommended 250
events which have prevented Britain from sensibly feeling the loss of the colony trade 250
the effects of the colony trade, and the monopoly of that trade, distinguished 250
to maintain a monopoly, the principal end of the dominion Great Britain assumes over the colonies 254
amount of the ordinary peace establishment of 254
the two late wars Britain sustained, colony wars, to support a monopoly 254
two modes by which they might be taxed 255
their assemblies not likely to tax them 255
taxes by parliamentary requisition as little likely to be raised 256
representatives of, might he seated into the British parliament with good effect 257
answer to objections against American representation 258
the interest of the consumer in Britain sacrificed to that of the producer in raising an empire in America 274
the motive that led to his discovery of Americas 229
why he gave the name of Indies to the islands he discovered 229
his triumphal exhibition of their productions 230
his instructions for fencing a kitchen garden 64
advises the planting of vineyards 65
the different common standards or mediums made use of to facilitate the exchange of commodities in the early stages of 10
origin of money 10
definition of the term value 12
treaties of, though advantageous to the merchants and manufacturers of the favoured countries, necessarily, disadvantageous to those of the favouring country 222
Methuen 223
restraints laid upon the European colonies in America 236
the present splendour of the mercantile system owing to the discovery and colonization of America 259
review of the plan by which it proposes to enrich a country 266
the interest of the consumer constantly sacrificed to that of the producer 274
the barter of, insufficient for the mutual supply of the wants of mankind 10
metals found to be the best medium to facilitate the exchange of 10
labour an invariable standard for the value of 14
real and nominal prices of, distinguished 14
component parts of the prices of, explained and illustrated 21
natural and market prices of, distinguished and how regulated 23
the price of rude produce, how affected by the advance of wealth and improvement 91, 92
foreign are primarily purchased with the produce of domestic industry 151
when advantageously exported in a rude state, even by a foreign capital 156
the quantity of, in every country, naturally regulated by the demand 176
wealth in goods, and in money, compared 177
exportation of, to a proper market, always attended with more profit than that of gold and silver 179
the natural advantages of countries in particular productions sometimes not possible to struggle against 185
mercantile, incapable of consulting their true interests when they become sovereigns 264
an exclusive company a public nuisance 265
trading, how first formed 307
regulated and joint-stock companies distinguished 307
regulated companies in Great Britain specified 307, 308
are useless 308
constant view of such companies 308
forts and garrisons, why never maintained by regulated companies 309
the nature of joint-stock companies explained 310, 311, 316
a monopoly necessary to enable a joint-stock company to carry on a foreign trade 317
what kind of joint-stock companies need no exclusive privileges 317
joint-stock companies, why well adapted to the trade of banking 317
the trade of insurance may be carried on successfully by a joint-stock company 317
also, inland navigations, and the supply of water to a great city 317
ill success of joint-stock companies in other undertakings 318
the effect of, in the purchase of commodities 23
among the venders 23, 37
in France, its object 337
American, its strength owing to the important characters it confers on the members of it 257
Conversion price
in the payment of rents in Scotland, explained 76, 77
the standard measure of value among the ancient Romans 16
is no legal tender in England 16
Domingo, described 229
the raising of, in different countries, not subject to the same degree of rivalship, as manufactures 3, 4
is the best standard for reserved rents 14
the price of, how regulated 15
the price of, the best standard for comparing the different values of particular commodities at different times and places 16
the three component parts in the price of 21
is dearer in Scotland than in England 31
its value compared with that of butcher's meat, in the different periods of agriculture 62
compared with silver 75
circumstances in a historical view of the prices of corn that have misled writers in treating of the value of silver at different periods 76
is always a more accurate measure of value than any other commodity 79
why dearer in great towns than in the country 80
why dearer in some rich commercial countries, as Holland and Genoa 80
rose in its nominal price on the discovery of the American mines 81
and in consequence of the civil war under king Charles I. 81
and in consequence of the bounty on the exportation of 82
tendency of the bounty examined 83
chronological table of the prices of 108
the least profitable article of growth in the British West Indian colonies 159
the restraints formerly laid upon the trade of, unfavourable to the cultivation of land 162
the free importation of, could little affect the farmers of Great Britain 187
the policy of the bounty on the exportation of, examined 206
the reduction in the price of, not produced by the bounty 206
tillage not encouraged by the bounty 206
the money price of, regulates that of all other home-made commodities 207
illustration 208
ill effects of the bounty 208
motives of the country gentlemen in granting the bounty 209
the natural value of not to be altered by altering the money price 210
the four several branches of the corn trade specified 213
the inland dealer, for his own interest, will not raise the price of, higher than the scarcity of the season requires 213
corn a commodity the least liable to be monopolised 214
the inland dealers too numerous and dispersed to form a general combination 214
dearths, never artificial, but when government interferes improperly to prevent them 214
the freedom of the corn trade the best security against a famine 215
old English statute to prohibit the corn trade 215
consequences of farmers being forced to become corn dealers 215
the use of corn dealers to the farmers 216
the prohibitory statute against the corn trade softened 217
but still under the influence of popular prejudices 217, 218
the average quantity imported and exported compared with the consumption and annual produce 218
tendency of a free importation of 219
the home-market the most important one for corn 219
for regulating the importation of wheat, confessed by the suspension of its execution by temporary statutes 219
note 219
the home-market indirectly supplied by the exportation of corn 219
how a liberal system of free exportation and importation and among all nations would operate 220
the laws concerning corn, similar to those relating to religion 221
the home-market supplied by the carrying trade 221
the system of laws connected with the establishment of the bounty, undeserving of praise 221
by what authority erected 50, 52
the advantages they derive from the surrounding country 52
check the operations of competition 54
their internal regulations combinations against the public 54
are injurious even to the members of them 54
the laws of, obstruct the free circulation of labour from one employment to another 57
origin of 163
are exempted by their privileges from the power of the feudal barons 164
the European East India companies disadvantageous to the eastern commerce 181, 182
the exclusive privileges of corporations ought to be destroyed 191
in Scotland, their situation described 49
are cheap manufacturers of stockings 49
the diminution of, in England, considered 95
character of 329
to the Holy land, favourable to the revival of commerce 165
Currency of states
remarks on 194
the motives and tendency of drawbacks from the duties of 203
the revenue of the customs increased by drawbacks 205
occasion of first imposing the duties of 307
origin of those duties 371
three ancient branches of 372
drawbacks of 372
are regulated according to the mercantile system 372, 373
frauds practised to obtain drawbacks and bounties 373
the duties of, in many instances uncertain 373
improvement of, suggested 374
computation of the expense of collecting them 380
the business of, generally carried on as a save-all 96
circumstances which impede or promote the attention to it 96
english and Scotch dairies 96
the navigation of that river, why of little use to the interior parts of the country from whence it flows 9
his objections to the transferring the duties on beer to the malt considered 377
never caused by combinations among the dealers in corn, but by some general calamity 214
the free exercise of the corn trade the best palliative against the inconveniencies of a dearth 217
corn dealers the best friends to the people at such seasons 218
public, the origin of, traced 386
are accelerated by the expenses attending war 386
account of the unfunded debt of Great Britain 387
the funded debt 388
aggregate and general funds 389
sinking fund 389
annuities for terms of years and for lives 389
the reduction of, during peace, bears no proportion to its accumulation during war 391
the plea of the interest being no burden to the nation considered 394
are seldom fairly paid when accumulated to a certain degree 396
might easily be discharged, by extending the British system of taxation over all the provinces of the empire 397
ireland and America ought to contribute to discharge the public debts of Britain 402
Sir Matthew, his observations on the accumulation of taxes 369
his proposal for transferring all taxes to the consumer, by annual payments, considered 371
though the increase of, may at first raise the price of goods, it never fails to reduce it afterwards 314
account of the settlements of, in the West Indies 234
the mines of, not always worth working for 73
the great importance of, in war 293
instances of 293
public, their political use 334
mistaken by Columbus for a part of the East Indies 229
its principal productions 229
the natives soon stripped of all their gold 230
historical view of the French colony there 234
the intention of that compilation 351
ancient, where the colonies of, settled 227
Dramatic exhibitions
the political use of 334
in commerce, explained 182
the motives to, and tendency of, explained 203
on wines, currants, and wrought silks 203
on tobacco and sugar 204
on wines, particularly considered 204
were originally granted to encourage the carrying trade 205
the revenue of the customs increased by them 205
drawbacks allowed in favour of the colonies 213
regulations of their importation and exportation 272
the motive to this vice inquired into 200
their settlements in America slow in in improvement, because under the government of an exclusive company 234
their East India trade checked by monopoly 261
East India company
a monopoly against the very nation in which it is erected 261
the operation of such a company in a poor and in a rich country compared 261
that country whose capital is not large enough to extend to such a distant trade ought not to engage in it 262
the mercantile habits of trading companies render them incapable of consulting their true interests when they become sovereigns 264
the genius of the administration of the English company 264
subordinate practices of their agents and clerks 265
the bad conduct of agents in India owing to their situation 265
such an exclusive company a nuisance in every respect 266
brief review of their history 313
their privileges invaded 313
a rival company formed 313
the two companies united 314
are infected by the spirit of war and conquest 314
agreements between the company and government 314
interference of government in their territorial administration 315
and in the direction at home 315
why unfit to govern a great empire 315
their sovereign and commercial characters incompatible 344
how the territorial acquisitions of, might be rendered a source of revenue 403
East Indies
representation of the miserable state of the provinces of, under the English government there 30
historical view of the European trade with those countries 86
rice countries more populous and rich than corn countries 86
the real price of labour lower in China and Indostan than in the greater part of Europe 87
gold and silver the most profitable commodities to carry thither 87
the proportional value of gold to silver, how rated there 89
great extension of foreign commerce by the discovery of a passage to, round the Cape of Good Hope 181
historical review of the intercourse with 181, 182
effect of the annual exportation of silver to, from Europe 182
the trade with, chiefly carried on by exclusive companies 261
tendency of their monopolies 261
sect of, in France, their political tenets 275
its present share of trade owing to the removal of the court and parliament 138
the principal cause of the various talents observable in different men 7
those parts of, for which there are no public institutions, generally the best taught 320
in universities, a view of 323
of travelling for 324
course of, in the republics of ancient Greece 324
in ancient Rome 324
the ancient teachers superior to those in modern times 326
public institutions injurious to good education 326
inquiry how far the public ought to attend to the education of the people 327
the different opportunities of education in the different ranks of the people 328
the advantages of proper attention in the state to the education of the people 329
the first country in which agriculture and manufactures appear to have been cultivated 9
agriculture was greatly favoured there 283
was long the granary of the Roman empire 284
action of, in England, when invented, and its operation 160
the advantages and disadvantages of the different kinds of, in the same neighbourhood, continually tend to equality 41
the differences or inequalities among, specified 41
the constancy or precariousness of, influences the rate of wages 43
the dates of its several species of coinage, silver, gold, and copper 16
why labour is cheaper there than in North America 29
the rate of population in both countries compared 29
the produce and labour of, have gradually increased from the earliest accounts in history, while writers are representing the country as rapidly declining 141
enumeration of obstructions and calamities which the prosperity of the country has surmounted 141
circumstances that favour commerce and manufactures 171
laws in favour of agriculture 171
why formerly unable to carry on foreign wars of long duration 180
why the commerce with France has been subjected to so many discouragements 202
foundation of the enmity between these countries 202
translation of the commercial treaty concluded in 1703 with Portugal 223
inquiry into the value of the trade with Portugal 223, 224
might procure gold without the Portugal trade 224
consequences of securing the colony trade by the navigation act 245
the law of, prevents the division of land by alienation 157
intention of 158
general review of the several nations of, as to their improvement since the discovery of America 85
the two richest countries in, enjoy the greatest shares of the carrying trade 153
inquiry into the advantages derived by, from the discovery and colonization of America 243
the particular advantages derived by each colonizing country 244
and by others which have no colonies 259
the operation of, in the commercial intercourse of different countries 174
the course of, an uncertain criterion of the balance of trade between two countries 192, 193
is generally in favour of those countries which pay in bank money, against those which pay in common currency 198
the principal objects of 371
the duties of, more clear and distinct than the customs 373
affects only a few articles of the most general consumption 373
the scheme of Sir Robert Walpole defended 375
the excise upon home-made fermented and spiritous liquors the most productive 376
expense of levying excise duties computed 380
the laws of, more vexatious than those of the customs 381
military, alteration in, produced by the invention of fire-arms 292
private, how they influence the national capital 33
advantage of bestowing them on durable commodities 33
Export trade
the principles of, explained 153
when rude produce may be advantageously exported, even by a foreign capital 156, 157
why encouraged by European nations 182, 183
by what means promoted 183
the motives to, and tendency of, drawbacks of duties 203
the grants of bounties on, considered 205
exportation of the materials of manufactures, review of the restraints and prohibitions of 268
public, in Scotland, the nature of the institution, explained 76, 77
articles of, how regulated by the civil magistrate 354
seldom remain on large estates many generations in commercial countries 170
of the public revenue, their character 383, 391
Farmers of land
the several articles that compose their gain distinguished 22
require more knowledge and experience than the generality of manufacturers 53
in what their capitals consist 112
the great quantity of productive labour put into motion by their capitals 149
artificers necessary to them 156
their situation better in England than in any other part of Europe 160
labour under great disadvantages everywhere 161
origin of long leases of farms 170
are a class of men least subject to the wretched spirit of monopoly 187
were forced by old statutes to become the only dealers in corn 215
could not sell corn cheaper than any other corn merchant 216
could seldom sell it so cheap 216
the culture of land obstructed by this division of their capitals 217
the use of corn-dealers to the farmers 217
how they contribute to the annual production of the land, according to the French agricultural system of political economy 275
Feudal government
miserable state of the occupiers of land under 137
trade and interest of money under 137
chiefs, their power 157
slaves, their situation 159
tenures of land 159
taxation 161
original poverty and servile state of the tradesmen in towns 162
immunities seldom granted but for valuable considerations 163
origin of free burghs 163
the power of the barons reduced by municipal privileges 163
the cause and effect of ancient hospitality 167
extensive power of the ancient barons 168
was not established in England until the Norman conquest 168
was silently subverted by manufactures and commerce 169
Feudal wars
how supported 290
military exercises not well attended to, under 291
standing armies gradually introduced to supply the place of the feudal militia 295
account of the casualties or taxes under 363
revenues under, how enjoyed by the great landholders 385
for the renewal of leases, the motive for exacting them, and their tendency 349
alteration in the art of war effected by the invention of 292, 295
the invention of, favourable to the extension of civilisation 296
the component parts of the price of, explained 21
the multiplication of, at market, by human industry, both limited and uncertain 99
how an increase of demand raises the price of fish 100
observations on the tonnage bounties granted to 211
the boat fishery ruined by this bounty 212
the ancient commercial prosperity of, perpetuated by the solid improvements of agriculture 172
the component parts of the price of, explained 21
Bishop, remarks on his Chronicon Pretiosum 77, 78
the component parts of the price of, explained 21
will always purchase as much labor as it can maintain on the spot 61
bread and butcher's meat compared 62, 63
is the original source of every other production 69
the abundance of, constitutes the principal part of the riches of the world, and gives the principal value to many other kinds of riches 73
Forestalling and engrossing
the popular fear of, like the suspicions of witchcraft 218
when necessary for the protection of commerce 306
fluctuations in the legal rate of interest for money there during the course of the present century 37, 38
remarks on the trade and riches of 38
the nature of apprenticeships there 51
the propriety of restraining the planting of vineyards examined 65
variations in the price of grain there 73
the money price of labour has sunk gradually with the money price of corn 84
foundation of the Mississippi scheme 130
little trade or industry to be found in the parliament towns of 138
description of the class of farmers called metayers 159
laws relating to the tenure of land 161
services formerly exacted besides rent 161
the taille, what, and in operation in checking the cultivation of land 161
origin of the magistrates and councils of cities 164
no direct legal encouragement given to agriculture 171
Colbert's commercial regulations 189
french goods heavily taxed in Great Britain 192
the commercial intercourse between France and England, now chiefly carried on by smugglers 192
the policy of the commercial restraints between France and Britain considered 192
state of the coinage there 194
why the commerce with England has been subjected to discouragement 202
foundation of the enmity between these countries 202
remarks concerning the seignorage on coin 225
standard of the gold coin there 225
the trade of the French colonies, how regulated 237
the government of the colonies conducted with moderation 241
the sugar colonies of, better governed than those of Britain 241
the kingdom of, how taxed 256
the members of the league fought more in defence of their own importance than for any other cause 258
under what direction the funds for the repair of the roads are placed 305
general state of the roads 305
the universities badly governed 319
remarks on the management of the parliaments of 335
measures taken in, to reduce the power of the clergy 337
account of the mode of rectifying the inequalities of the predial taille in the generality of Montauban 352
the personal taille explained 360
the inequalities in, how remedied 361
how the personal taille discourages cultivation 361
the vingtieme 362
stamp duties and the controle 364, 365
the capitation tax, how rated 367
restraints upon the interior trade of the country by the local variety of the revenue laws 382
the duties on tobacco and salt, how levied 383
the different sources of revenue in 384
how the finances of, might be reformed 384
the French system of taxation compared with that in Britain 384
the nature of tontines explained 390
estimate of the whole national debt of 390
generally a predominating principle in human nature 140
Fuller's earth
the exportation of why prohibited 271
British, brief historical view of 387
operation of, politically considered 393
the practice of funding has gradually enfeebled every state that has adopted it 395
Fur trade
the first principles of 68
Vasco de, the first European who discovered a naval track to the East Indies 229
the gains from, distinguished into the component parts 22
not a profitable employment 64
fund in the British finances explained 389
why corn is dear in the territory of 80
the trade of, doubled in fifteen years, by erecting banks there 120
why a city of greater trade than Edinburgh 138
not the standard value in England 16
its value measured by silver 17
reformation of the gold coin 17
mint price of gold in England 17
the working the mines of, in Peru, very unprofitable 71
qualities for which this metal is valued 72
the proportionate value of, to silver, how rated before and after the discovery of the American mines 89
is cheaper in the Spanish market than silver 90
great quantities of, remitted annually from Portugal to England 223
why little of it remains in England 223
is always to be had for its value 224
Gold and Silver
the prices of, how affected by the increase of the quantity of the metals 79
are commodities that naturally seek the best market 80
are metals of the least value among the poorest nations 80
the increase in the quantity of, by means of wealth and improvement, has no tendency to diminish their value 81
the annual consumption of those metals very considerable 87
annual importation of, into Spain and Portugal 88
are not likely to multiply beyond the demand 88
the durability of, the cause of the steadiness of their price 88
on what circumstances the quantity of, in every particular country, depends 100
the low value of these metals in a country no evidence of its wealth, nor their high value of its poverty 101
if not employed at home, will be sent abroad notwithstanding all prohibitions 139
the reason why European nations have studied to accumulate these metals 174
commercial arguments in favour of their exportation 174
these and all other commodities are mutually the prices of each other 175
the quantity of, in every country, regulated by the effectual demand 176
why the prices of these metals do not fluctuate so much as those of other commodities 176
to preserve a due quantity of, in a country, no proper object of attention for the government 176
the accumulated gold and silver in a country distinguished into three parts 178
a great quantity of bullion alternately exported and imported for the purposes of foreign trade 179
annual amount of these metals imported into Spain and Portugal 180
the importation of, not the principal benefit derived from foreign trade 181
the value of, how affected by the discovery of the American mines 181
and by the passage round the Cape of Good Hope to the East Indies 181
effect of the annual exportation of silver to the East Indies 182
the commercial means pursued to increase the quantity of these metals in a country 182, 192
bullion, how received and paid at the bank of Amsterdam 195
at what prices 196
a trading country without mines not likely to be exhausted by an annual exportation of these metals 200
the value of, in Spain and Portugal, depreciated by restraining the exportation of them 208
are not imported for the purposes of plate or coin, but for foreign trade 224
the search after mines of, the most ruinous of all projects 230
are valuable because scarce and difficult to be procured 231
evidence of the wealth he acquired by teaching 56
civil, indispensibly necessary for the security of private property 297
subordination in society, by what means introduced 297
inequality of fortune introduces civil government for its preservation 299
the administration of justice a source of revenue in early times 299
why government ought not to have the management of turnpikes 304
nor of other public works 306
want of parsimony during peace imposes a necessity of contracting debts, to carry on a war 386
origin of a national debt 386
progression of public debts 386
war, why generally agreeable to the people 391
political, the greatest spendthrifts in society 142
artificial, tend to reduce the price of butcher's meat 63
subject to monopolies obtained by manufactures to their prejudice 271
foreign trade promoted in several of the ancient states of 284
military exercises a part of general education 291
soldiers not a distinct profession in 291
course of education in the republics of 324
the morals of the Greeks inferior to those of the Romans 324
schools of the philosophers and rhetoricians 325
law no science among the Greeks 325
courts, of justice 325
the martial spirit of the people, how supported 329
Greek colonies
how distinguished from Roman colonies 227, 228
rapid progress of these colonies 232
Greek language
how introduced as a part of university education 322
philosophy, the three great branches of 322
Ground rents
great variations of, according to situation 354
are a more proper subject of taxation, than houses 355
Gum senega
review of the regulations imposed on the trade for 272
great revolution effected in the art of war by the invention of 292, 296
this invention favourable to the extension of civilization 296
Gustavus Vasa
how enabled to establish the Reformation in Sweden 338
agio of the bank of, explained 195
sources of the revenue of that city 343, 344
the inhabitants of, how taxed to the state 359
Hamburgh company
some account of 308
Hanseatic league
causes that rendered it formidable 164
why no vestige remains of the wealth of the Hans towns 172
Hearth money
why abolished in England 356, 357
Henry VIII.
of England, prepares the way for the Reformation, by shutting out the authority of the pope 338
Herring buss bounty
remarks on 211
fraudulent claims of the bounty 211
the boat fishery the most natural and profitable 212
account of the British white herring fishery 212
account of the busses fitted out in Scotland, the amount of their cargoes, and the bounties on them 287
the produce of rude countries commonly carried to a distant market 97
price of, in England three centuries ago 98
salted hides inferior to fresh ones 98, 99
the price of, how affected by circumstances in cultivated and in uncultivated countries 99
Highlands of Scotland
interesting remarks on the population of 33
military character of the Highlanders 293
remarks on his definition of wealth 13
circumstances which render their flesh cheap or dear 95
observations on the riches, and trade of the republic of 38
not to follow some business unfashionable there 40
cause of the dearness of corn there 80
enjoys the greatest share in the carrying trade of Europe 153
how the Dutch were excluded from being the carriers to Great Britain 188
is a country that prospers under the heaviest taxation 189
account of the bank of Amsterdam 194, 195
this republic derives even its subsistence from foreign trade 202, 203
tax paid on houses there 356
account of the tax upon successions 363
stamp duties 364
high amount of the taxes in 370, 384
its prosperity depends on the republican form of government 385
from pupils to teachers in colleges tendency of, to quicken their diligence 319
in the time of Edward IV., how made 104
ancient, the cause and effect of 169, 385
different acceptations of the term in England, and some other countries 49
houses considered as part of the national stock 113
houses produce no revenue 113
the rent of, distinguished into two parts 354
operation of a tax upon house rent, payable by the tenant 354
house rent, the best test of the tenant's circumstances 355
proper regulation of a tax  on 355
how taxed in Holland 356
hearth money 356
window tax 357
Hudson's Bay company
the nature of their establishment and trade 312
their profits not so high as has been reported 312
war, how supported by a nation of 289
cannot be very numerous 290
no established administration of justice needful among them 297
age the sole foundation of rank and precedency among 297
no considerable inequality of fortune or subordination to be found among them 298
no hereditary honours in such a society 298
war, how supported by a nation of 290
unfashionable in Holland 40
why restraints have been imposed on, with the two kinds of 182
how restrained to secure a monopoly of the home market to domestic industry 183
the true policy of these restraints doubtful 183
how far it may be proper to continue the free importation of certain foreign goods 189
how far it may be proper to restore the free importation of goods, after it has been interrupted 189
of the materials of manufacture, review of the legal encouragements given to 266
the principles of that sect, explained 332
the several classes of people there kept distinct 283
the natives of, how prevented from undertaking long sea voyages 283
the different kinds of, seldom dealt impartially with by any nation 1, 2
the species of, frequently local 8
naturally suited to the demand 24
is increased by the liberal reward of labour 34
how affected by seasons of plenty and scarcity 34, 35
is more advantageously exerted in towns than in the country 53
the average produce of, always suited to the average consumption 79
is promoted by the circulation of paper money 119
three requisites to putting industry in motion 120
how the general character of nations is estimated by 137
and idleness, the proportion between, how regulated 137
is employed for subsistence before it extends to conveniencies and luxury 155
whether the general industry of a society is promoted by commercial restraints on importation 183
private interest naturally points to that employment most advantageous to the society 183
but without intending or knowing it 184
legal regulations of private industry dangerous assumptions of power 185
domestic industry ought not to be employed on what can be purchased cheaper from abroad 185
of the society, can augment only in proportion as its capital augments 185
when it may be necessary to impose some burden upon foreign industry to favour that at home 187
the free exercise of industry ought to be allowed to all 191
the natural effort of every individual to better his condition, will, if unrestrained, result in the prosperity of the society 221
from fire and sea risks, the nature and profits of examined 45
the trade of insurance may be successfully carried on by a joint-stock company 317, 318
landed, monied, and trading, distinguished 144
for the use of money, the foundation of that allowance explained 22
historical view of the alterations of, in England, and other countries 37
remarks on the high rates of, in Bengal 39
and in China 40
may be raised by defective laws, independent on the influence of wealth or poverty 40
the lowest ordinary rate of, must somewhat more than compensate occasional losses 40
the common relative proportion between interest and mercantile profits inquired into 40
was not lowered, in consequence of the discovery of the American mines 145
how the legal rate of, ought to be fixed 146
consequences of its being fixed too high or too low 146, 147
the market rate of, regulates the price of land 147
whether a proper object of taxation 357
why never likely to furnish cattle to the prejudice of Great Britain 186
the proposed absentee tax there considered 379
ought in justice to contribute towards the discharge of the public debt of Great Britain 402
expediency of an union with Great Britain 402
the handsome income he made by teaching 56
the only great country in Europe which has been cultivated and improved in every part by means of its foreign commerce 172
was originally colonized by the Dorians 227
the returns of trade from that island, why irregular 402
territorial, did not originate in the feudal law 168
the administration of, a duty of the sovereign 297
in early times a source of revenue to him 299
the making justice subservient to the revenue a source of great abuses 299
is never administered gratis 300
the whole administration of, but an inconsiderable part of the expense of government 300
how the whole expense of justice might be defrayed from the fees of court 300
the interference of the jurisdictions of the several English courts of law accounted for 301
law language, how corrupted 302
the judicial and executive power, why divided 302
by whom the expense of administration of, ought to be borne 342
the Swedish traveller, his account of the husbandry of the British colonies in North America 94
a rent demanded for the rocks on which it grows 61
his account of the average price of wheat 83
under feudal institutions, no more than the greatest baron in the nation 168
treasure-trove an important branch of revenue to 385, 386
his situation, how favourable for the accumulating treasure 386
in a commercial country, naturally spends his revenue in luxuries 386
is hence driven to call upon his subjects for extraordinary aids 386
and their ministers the greatest spendthrifts in a country 149
the fund which originally supplies every nation with its annual consumption 1
how the proportion between labour and consumption in regulated 1
the different kinds of industry seldom dealt impartially with by any nation 2
the division of labour considered 2, 3
this division increases the quantity of work 4
instances in illustration 5
the divisibility of governed by the market 8
labour the real measure of the exchangeable value of commodities 12
different kinds of, not easily estimated by immediate comparison 13
is compared by the intermediate standard of money 13
in an invariable standard for the value of commodities 14
has a real and a nominal price 14
the quantity of labour employed on different objects, the only rule for exchanging them in the rude stages of society 20
difference between the wages of labour and profits on stock in manufactures 20
the whole labour of a country never exerted 22
is in every instance suited to the demand 24
the effect of extraordinary calls for 25
the deductions made from the produce of labour employed upon land 27
why dearer in North America than in England 29
is cheap in countries that are stationary 29
the demand for, would continually decrease, in a declining country 30
the province of Bengal cited as an instance 30
is not badly paid for in Great Britain 30, 31
an increasing demand for, favourable to population 33
that of freemen cheaper to the employers than that of slaves 33
the money price of, how regulated 36
is liberally rewarded in new colonies 38
common labour and skilful labour distinguished 42
the free circulation of, from one employment to another, obstructed by corporation laws 57
the unequal prices of, in different places, probably owing to the law of settlements 59
can always procure subsistence on the spot, where it is purchased 61
the money price of, in different countries, how governed 80
is set into motion by stock employed for profit 106
the division of, depends on the accumulation of stock 111
machines to facilitate labour advantageous to society 116
productive and unproductive distinguished 135
various orders of men specified whose labour in unproductive 136
unproductive labourers all maintained by revenue 136
the price of, how raised by the increase of the national capital 145
its price, though nominally raised, may continue the same 146
is liberally rewarded in new colonies 231
of artificers and manufacturers, never adds any value to the whole amount of the rude produce of the land, according to the French agricultural system of political economy 277
this doctrine shewn to be erroneous 281
the productive powers of labour, how to be improved 281
useful and productive, everywhere proportioned to the capital stock on which they are employed 1, 2
share the produce of their labour, in most cases, with the owners of the stock on which they are employed 20
their wages a continued subject of contest between them and their masters 28
are seldom successful in their outrageous combinations 28
the sufficiency of their earnings a point not easily determined 28
their wages sometimes raised by increase of work 28
their demands limited by the funds destined for payment 29
are continually wanted in North America 29
miserable condition of those in China 29, 30
are not ill paid in Great Britain 30, 31
if able to maintain their families in dear years, they must be at their ease in plentiful seasons 31
a proof furnished  in the complaints of their luxury 33
why worse paid than artificers 42
their interests, strictly connected with the interests of the society 106
labour the only source of their revenue 112
effects of a life of labour on the understandings of the poor 327
the demand of rent for, how founded 21
the rent paid enters into the greater part of all commodities 21
generally produces more food than will maintain the labour necessary to bring it to market 61
good roads and navigable canals equalize difference of situation 62
that employed in raising food for men and cattle regulates the rent of all other cultivated land 64, 67
can clothe and lodge more than it can feed while uncultivated, and the contrary when improved 68
the culture of land producing food creates a demand for the produce of other lands 73
produces by agriculture a much greater quantity of vegetable than of animal food 79
the full improvement of, requires a stock of cattle to supply manure 93
cause and effect of the diminution of cottagers 95
signs of the land being completely improved 96
the whole annual produce, or the price of it, naturally divides itself into rent, wages, and profit of stock 106
the usual price of, depends on the common rate of interest for money 147
the profits of cultivation exaggerated by projectors 154
the cultivation of, naturally preferred to trade and manufactures, on equal terms 155
artificers necessary to the cultivation of 156
was all appropriated, though not cultivated, by the northern destroyers of the Roman empire 157
origin of the law of primogeniture under the feudal government 157
entails 158
obstacles to the improvement of land under feudal proprietors 158
feudal tenures 159, 160
feudal taxation 161
the improvement of land checked in France, by the taille 161
occupiers of, labour under great disadvantages 161
origin of long leases of 169
small proprietors the best improvers of 170
small purchasers of, cannot hope to raise fortunes by cultivation 170, 171
tenures of, in the British American colonies 235
is the most permanent source of revenue 345
the rent of a whole country not equal to the ordinary levy upon the people 345
the revenue from, proportioned not to the rent, but to the produce 346
reasons for selling the crown lands 346
the land tax of Great Britain considered 348
an improved land-tax suggested 349
tithes a very unequal tax 349
tithes discourage improvement 349
why frequently inattentive to their own particular interests 106
how they contribute to the annual production of the land, according to the French agricultural system of political economy 275
should be encouraged to cultivate a part of their own land 350
Latin language
how it became an essential part of university education 321
the language of, how corrupted 302
did not improve into a science in ancient Greece 325
remarks on the courts of justice in Greece and Rome 325, 326
account of his banking scheme for the improvement of Scotland 130
why amply rewarded for their labour 44
great amount of their fees 300
the various usual conditions of 349, 350
restrictions on the exportation of unmanufactured 271
in universities frequently improper for instruction 320
the vices of, ruinous to the common people, and therefore severely censured by them 332, 333
three duties only necessary for a sovereign to attend to for supporting a system of 286
computed number of inhabitants in that city 233
Linen manufacture
narrow policy of the master manufacturers in 266
the rewards of, reduced by competition 56
was more profitable in ancient Greece 56
the cheapness of literary education an advantage to the public 57
Loans of money
the nature of, analysed 144
the extensive operation of 144
remarks on his opinion of the difference between the market and mint prices of silver bullion 18
his account of the cause of lowering the rates of interest for money, examined 145
his distinction between money and moveable goods 173
cheaper in London than in any other capital city in Europe 49
the origin and employment of 322
the true nature of, and the causes of their success, explained 45
instances of the universal reliance mankind have on it 45
origin and principles of that sect 339
distinguished from necessaries 368
operation of taxes on 368
the good and bad properties of taxes on 380
Philip of, the superiority that discipline gave his army over that of his enemies 294
for facilitating mechanical operations, how invented and improved 4, 5
are advantageous to every society 116
the cultivation of, long confined to Holland by English tithes 353
Madeira wines
how introduced into North America and Britain 204
reasons for transferring the duties on brewing to 378
distillery, how to prevent smuggling 377
those thrown out of one business can transfer their industry to colateral employments 190
a spirit of combination among them to support monopolies 191
manufacturers prohibited by old statutes from keeping a shop, or selling their own goods by retail 215, 216
the use of wholesale dealers to manufacturers 217
an unproductive class of the people, according to the French agricultural system of political economy 276
how manufacturers augment the revenue of a country 281
the great advantages resulting from a division of labour in 3
instances in illustration 5
why profits increase in the higher stages of 21
of what parts the gain consists 22
the private advantages of secrets in 25
peculiar advantages of soil and situation 25
monopolies 25
corporation privileges 26
the deductions made from labour employed on manufactures 27
inquiry how far they are affected by seasons of plenty and scarcity 35
are not no materially affected by circumstances in the country where they are carried on, as in the places where they are consumed 35
new manufactures generally  give higher wages than old ones 48
are more profitably carried on in towns than in the open country 53
by what means the prices of, are reduced while the society continues improving 103
instances in hardware 103
instances in the woollen manufacture 104
what fixed capitals are required to carry on particular manufactures 112
manufactures for distant sale, why not established in North America 156
why preferred to foreign trade for the employment of a capital 156
motives to the establishment of manufactures for distant sale 165
how shifted from one country to another 165, 166
natural circumstances which contribute to the establishment of them 166
their effect on the government and manners of a country 167
the independence of artisans explained 169
may flourish amidst the ruin of a country, and begin to decay on the return of its prosperity 180
inquiry how far manufactures might be affected by a freedom of trade 190
british restraints on manufactures in North America 238, 239
the exportation of instruments in, prohibited 273
by the principal support of foreign trade 283
require a more extensive market than rude produce of the land 283
were exercised by slaves in ancient Greece 284
high prices of, in Greece and at Rome 285
false policy to check manufactures in order to promote agriculture 285
in Great Britain, why principally fixed in the coal countries 370
the supply of, in most places depends on the stock of cattle raised 93
Maritime countries
why the first that are civilized and improved 9
Martial spirit
how supported in the ancient republics of Greece and Rome 329
the want of it now supplied by standing armies 329
the establishment of a militia little able to support it 329
Mediterranean sea
peculiarly favourable for the first attempts in navigation 9
his account of the annual importation of gold and silver into Spain and Portugal 88
his relative proportion of each 89
Mercantile system
explained 372
Mercenary troops
origin and reason of 291
the numbers of, how limited 291
their judgments more to be depended on respecting the interest of their particular branches of trade, than with regard to the public interest 106, 107
their capitals altogether circulating 112
their dealings extended by the aid of bankers notes 121, 124
customs of, first established to supply the want of laws, and afterwards admitted as laws 126
the manner of negociating bills of exchange, explained 126
the pernicious tendency of drawing and redrawing 126, 127
in what method their capitals are employed 147
their capitals, dispersed and unfixed 149
the principles of foreign trade examined 153
are the best of improvers when they turn country gentlemen 167
their preference among the different species of trade, how determined 183
are actuated by a narrow spirit of monopoly 201
the several branches of the corn trade specified and considered 215
the government of a company of, the worst a country can be under 234
of London, not good economists 253
an unproductive class of men, according to the present agricultural system of political economy in France 277
the quick return of mercantile capitals enables merchants to advance money to government 386, 387
their capitals increased by lending money to the state 387
character of his natural and essential order of political societies 282
why the best medium of commerce 10
origin of stamped coins 11
why different metals became the standard of value among different nations 16
the durability of, the cause of the steadiness of their price 88
on what the quantity of precious metals in every particular country depends 100
restraints upon the exportation of 272
the science of, explained 323
description of the class of farmers so called in France 159
the teachers among, why popular preachers 330
translation of the commercial treaty concluded by him between England and Portugal 223
was a less civilized country than Peru, when first visited by the Spaniards 85
present populousness of the capital city 233
low state of arts at the first discovery of that empire 233
why allowed to be formed in cities, and its formidable nature 164
the origin and nature of, explained 292
how distinguished from a regular standing army 292
must always be inferior to a standing army 293
a few campaigns of service may make a militia equal to a standing army 293
instances 294
a most perishable commodity, how manufactured for store 96
wind and water, their late introduction into England 105
distinguished by their fertility or barrenness 70
comparison between those of coal and those of metals 71
the competition between, extends to all parts of the world 71
the working of, a lottery 72
diamond mines not always worth working 73
tax paid to the king of Spain from the Peruvian mines 85
the discovery of mines not dependent on human skill or industry 100
in Hungary, why worked at less expense than the neighbouring ones in Turkey 284
projects of, uncertain and ruinous, and unfit for legal encouragement 230
Marquis de, his character of the economical table 282
scheme in France, the real foundation of 130
for tithe, a relief to the farmer 353
the origin of, traced 10
is the representative of labour 13
the value of, greatly depreciated by the discovery of the American mines 14
how different metals became the standard money of different nations 16
the only part of the circulating capital of a society, of which the maintenance can diminish their neat revenue 116
makes no part of the revenue of a society 117
the term money, in common acceptation, of ambiguous meaning 117
the circulating money, in society, no measure of its revenue 118
paper money 118
effect of paper on the circulation of cash 118, 119
inquiry into the proportion the circulating money of any country bears to the annual produce circulated by it 120
paper can never exceed the value of the cash, of which it supplies the place, in any country 122
the pernicious practice of raising money by circulation, explained 126
the true cause of its exportation 139
loans of, the principles of, analysed 144
monied interest distinguished from the landed and trading interest 144
inquiry into the real causes of the reduction of interest 145
money and wealth synonymous terms in popular language 173
and moveable goods compared 173
the mercantile arguments for liberty to export gold and silver 173
the validity of these arguments examined 175
money and goods mutually the price of each other 175
over-trading causes complaints of the scarcity of money 176
why more easy to buy goods with money, than to buy money with goods 177
inquiry into the circulating quantity of, in Great Britain 178
effect of the discovery of the American mines on the value of 181
money and wealth different things 182
bank money explained 195
in trade or manufactures, the tendency of 25
are enemies to good management 62
tendency of making a monopoly, of colony trade 251
countries which have colonies obliged to share their advantages with many other countries 260
the chief engine in the mercantile system 261
how monopolies derange the natural distribution of the stock of the society 261
are supported by unjust and cruel laws 268
of a temporary nature, how far justifiable 316
perpetual monopolies injurious to the people at large 316
the inequalities in the predial taille in that generality, how rectified 352
reasons given by him for the high rates of interest among all Mahometan nations 40
examination of his idea of the cause of lowering the rate of interest of money 145
two different systems of, in every civilized society 332
the principal points of distinction between them 333
the ties of obligation in each system 333
why the morals of the common people are more regular in sectaries than under the established church 333
the excesses of, how to be corrected 333
his account of joint-stock companies, defective 317
his illustration of the operation of money exported for commercial purposes 174
why a part of the ancient Grecian education 324
and dancing, great amusement among barbarous nations 324
sometimes driven to inhuman customs, by poverty 1
the number of useful and productive labourers in, always proportioned to the capital stock on which they are employed 1, 2
the several sorts of industry seldom dealt impartially by 2
maritime nations, why the first improved 8
how ruined by a neglect of public economy 140
evidences of the increase of a national capital 141
how the expenses of individuals may increase the national capital 142
inland, a great means of improving a country in arts and industry 9
the advantages of 62
may be successfully managed by joint-stock companies 317
Navigation act of England
the principal dispositions of 187
motives that dictated, this law 188
its political and commercial tendency 188
its consequences, so far as it affected the colony trade with England 245
diminished the foreign trade with Europe 246
has kept up high profits in the British trade 246
subjects Britain to a disadvantage in every branch of trade of which she has not the monopoly 246, 247
distinguished from luxuries 368
operation of taxes on 368
principal necessaries taxed 369
Negro slaves
why not much employed in raising corn in the English colonies 159
why more numerous on sugar than on tobacco plantations 159
river, the cause of the early improvement of agriculture and manufactures in Egypt 9
bread made of, not so suitable to the human constitution as that made of wheat 68
the science of, explained 323
the professorships there, sinecures 319
Paper money
the credit of, how established 118
its operation explained 118
its effect on the circulation of cash 118, 119
promotes industry 119
operation of the several banking companies established in Scotland 120
can never exceed the value of the gold and silver, of which it supplies the place in any country 122
consequences of too much paper being issued 122
the practice of drawing and redrawing explained, with its pernicious effects 126
the advantages and disadvantages of paper credit, stated 131
ill effects of notes issued for small sums 132
suppressing small notes renders money more plentiful 132
the currency of, does not affect the prices of goods 133
account of the paper currency in North America 134
expedient of the government of Pennsylvania to raise money 345
why convenient for the domestic purposes of the North Americans 400
enjoys a little more trade than is necessary for the consumption of its inhabitants 138
Parish ministers
evils attending vesting the election of, in the people 339
is the immediate cause of the increase of capitals 138
promotes industry 138
frugal men public benefactors 140
is the only means by which artificers and manufacturers can add to the revenue and wealth of society, according to the French agricultural system of political economy 277
Pasture land
under what circumstances more profitable than arable land 62, 63
why it ought to be inclosed 63
the right of, why established in Scotland 340
military, origin and reason of 291
account of the paper currency there 134
good consequences of the government there having no religious establishment 332
derive a revenue from their paper currency 401
how divided into productive and unproductive classes according to the present French system of agricultural political economy 275
the unproductive class greatly useful to the others 277
the great body of, how rendered unwarlike 292
the different opportunities of education in the different ranks of 328
the inferior ranks of, the greatest consumers 375
the luxurious expenses of these ranks ought only to be taxed 376
for religious opinions, the true cause of 330
the discovery of the silver mines in, occasioned those in Europe to be in a great measure abandoned 71
these mines yield but small profit to the proprietors 71
tax paid to the king of Spain from these mines 85
the early accounts of the splendour and state of arts, in this country greatly exaggerated 85, 86
present state of, under the Spanish government 86
the working of the mines there becomes gradually more expensive 90
low state of arts there when first discovered 233
is probably more populous now than at any former period 233
natural, the origin and objects of 322
moral, the nature of, explained 322
logic, the origin and employment of 322
why amply rewarded for their labour 43, 44
the ancient system of, explained 322
the extraordinary advantage of a division of labour in this art 3
of private families, the melting it down to supply state exigencies, an insignificant resource 178
new plate is chiefly made from old 225
their knowledge more extensive than the generality of mechanics 53
the science of, explained 323
his account of the agriculture of Chochin-China 66
a country still kept in poverty by the feudal system of its government 101
Political economy
the two distinct objects and two different systems of 173
the present agricultural system of, adopted by French philosophers, described 275
classes of the people who contribute to the annual produce of the land 275
how proprietors contribute 275
how cultivators contribute 275
artificers and manufacturers unproductive 276
the unproductive classes maintained by the others 277
bad tendency of restrictions and prohibitions in trade 279
The bad effects of an injudicious political economy, how corrected 280
the capital error in this system pointed out 280
origin of, under the feudal government 162, 163
why esteemed badges of slavery 362
the nature of, considered 367
history of the laws made for the provision of, in England 57
Pope of Rome
the great power formerly assumed by 335
his power how reduced 337
rapid progress of the Reformation 338
riches and extreme poverty equally unfavourable to 33
is limited by the means of subsistence 33, 69
the proportion of malt used in the brewing of 376
the cultivation of the country not advanced by its commerce 171, 172
the value of gold and silver there depreciated by prohibiting their exportation 208
translation of the commercial treaty concluded in 1703 with England 223
a large share of the Portugal gold sent annually to England 223
motives that led to the discovery of a passage to the East round the Cape of Good Hope 229
lost its manufactures by acquiring rich and fertile colonies 251
a mercantile project, well calculated for being managed by a government 344
remarks on, as an article of food 67
culture and great produce of 67
the difficulty of preserving them the great obstacle to cultivating them for general diet 68
the cause of their cheapness 95
is a more important article of rural economy in France than in England 95
sometimes urges nations to inhuman customs 1
is no check to the production of children 33
but very unfavourable to raising them 33
Pragmatic sanction in France
the object of 337
is followed by the concordat 337
ecclesiastical, the means by which a national clergy ought to be managed by the civil magistrate 335
alterations in the mode of electing to them 335, 337
Presbyterian church government
the nature of, described 340
character of the clergy of 340, 341
real and nominal, of commodities, distinguished 14
money price of goods explained 19
rent for land enters into the price of the greater part of all commodities 21
the component parts of the price of goods explained 21
natural and market prices distinguished, and how governed 23, 36
though raised at first by an increase of demand, always reduced by it in the result 314
origin and motive of the law of succession by, under the feudal government 157
in contrary to the real interest of families 158
why not well calculated to manage mercantile projects for the sake of a revenue 344
the natural tendency of, both to the individual and to the public 138
prodigal men enemies to their country 140
of land and labour the source of all revenue 136
the value of, how to be increased 141
Professors in Universities
circumstances which determine their merit 340, 341
the various articles of gain that pass under the common idea of 22
an average rate of, in all countries 23
averages of, extremely difficult to ascertain 37
interest of money the best standard of 37
the diminution of, a natural consequence of prosperity 38
clear and gross profit distinguished 40
the nature of the highest ordinary rate of, defined 40
double interest deemed in Great Britain a reasonable mercantile profit 40
in thriving countries low profit may compensate the high wages of labour 41
the operation of high profits and high wages compared 41
compensates inconvenience and disgrace 42
of stock, how affected 46
large profits must be made from small capitals 47
why goods are cheaper in the metropolis than in country villages 47
great fortunes more frequently made by trade in large towns than in small ones 47
is naturally low in rich, and high in poor countries 106
how that of the different classes of traders is raised 148
private, the sole motive of employing capitals in any branch of business 154
when raised by monopolies, encourage luxury 253
unsuccessful in arts, injurious to a country 140
passions which prompt mankind to the invasion of 297
civil government necessary for the production of 297
wealth a source of authority 298
object of the statute of, in England 337
how far the variations in the price of, affect labour and industry 30, 34, 36
whether cheaper in the metropolis or in country villages 47
the prices of, better regulated by competition than by law 60
a rise in the prices of, must be uniform, to shew that it proceeds from a depreciation of the value of silver 102
mode of assessing the land-tax there 351
Public works and institutions
how to be maintained 302
equity of tolls for passage over roads, bridges and canals 303
why government ought not to have the management of turnpikes 304
nor of other public works 306
a service still exacted in most parts of Europe 161
Quakers of Pennsylvania
inference from their resolution to emancipate all their negro slaves 159
view of his agricultural system of political economy 279
his doctrine generally subscribed to 282
populousness of that city 233
rapid progress of the doctrines of, in Germany 338
in Sweden and Switzerland 338
in England and Scotland 338, 339
origin of the Lutheran and the Calvinistic sects 339
the object of instruction in 330
advantage the teachers of a new religion enjoy over those of one that is established 330
origin of persecutions for heretical opinions 330
how the zeal of the inferior clergy of the church of Rome is kept alive 330
utility of ecclesiastical establishments 331
how united with the civil power 331, 332
reserved, ought not to consist of money 14
but of corn 14
of land, constitutes a third part of the price of most kinds of goods 21
an average rate of, in all countries, and how regulated 23
makes the first deduction from the produce of labour employed upon land 27
the terms of, how adjusted between landlord and tenant 60, 61
is sometimes demanded for what is altogether incapable of human improvement 61
is paid for, and produced, by land in almost all situations 61
the general proportion paid for coal mines 71
and metal mines 71
mines of precious stones frequently yield no rent 73
how paid in ancient times 76
is raised, either directly or indirectly, by every improvement in the circumstances of society 105
gross and neat rent distinguished 115
how raised and paid under feudal governments 137
present average proportion of, compared with the produce of the land 137
of houses distinguished into two parts 354
difference between rent of house and rent of land 355
rent of a house the best estimate of a tenants circumstances 355
under the feudal system of government described 167
the original source of, pointed out 22
of a country, of what it consists 115
the neat revenue of a society diminished by supporting a circulating stock of money 116
money no part of revenue 117
is not to be computed in money, but in what money will purchase 117
how produced, and how appropriated, in the first instance 136
produce of land 136
produce of manufactures 136
Must always replace capital 136
the proportion between revenue and capital regulates the proportion between idleness and industry 138
both the savings and the spendings of, annually, consumed 138
of every society, equal to the exchangeable value of the whole produce of its industry 184
why government ought not to take the management of turnpikes, to derive a revenue from them 304
public works of a local nature always better maintained by provincial revenues than by the general revenue of the state 306
the abuses in provincial revenues trifling, when compared with those in the revenue of a great empire 306
the greater the revenue of the church, the smaller must be that of the state 341
the revenue of the state ought to be raised proportionably from the whole society 342
local expenses ought to be defrayed by a local revenue 343
inquiry into the sources of public revenue 343
of the republic of Hamburgh 343, 344
whether the government of Britain could undertake the management of the bank, to derive a revenue from it 344
the post office, a mercantile project, well calculated for being managed by government 344
princes not well qualified to improve their fortunes by trade 344
the English East India Company good traders before they became sovereigns, but each character now spoils the other 344
expedient of the government of Pennsylvania to raise money 345
rent of land the most permanent fund 345
feudal revenues 345
of Great Britain 345
revenue from land proportioned not to the rent but to the produce 346
reasons for selling the crown lands 346, 347
an improved land-tax suggested 349
the nature and effect of tithes explained 352
why a revenue cannot be raised in kind 353
when raised in money, how affected by different modes of valuation 353
a proportionable tax on houses the best source of revenue 355
remedies for the diminution of, according to their causes 374
bad effects of farming out public revenues 381
the different sources of revenue in France 384
how expended in the rude state of society 385
a very productive article of cultivation 67
requires a soil unfit for raising any other kind of food 67
rice countries more populous than corn countries 86
the chief enjoyment of, consists in the parade of 72, 73
instances of the inattention mankind pay to it 45
good, the public advantages of 62
how to be made and maintained 303
the maintenance of, why improper to be trusted to private interest 304
general state of, in France 305
in China 305
why copper became the standard of value among them 16
the extravagant prices paid by them for certain luxuries for the table accounted for 92
the value of silver higher among them than at the present time 92
the republic of, founded on a division of land among the citizens 228
the Agrarian law only executed upon one or two occasions 228
how the citizens who had no land subsisted 228
distinction between the Roman and Greek colonies 228
the improvement of the former slower than that of the latter 232
origin of the social war 257
the republic ruined by extending the privilege of Roman citizens to the greater part of the inhabitants of Italy 258
when contributions were first raised to maintain those who went to the wars 290
soldiers not a distinct profession there 291
improvement of the Roman armies by discipline 294
how that discipline was lost 295
the fall of the western empire, how effected 295
remarks on the education of the ancient Romans 324
their morals superior to those of the Greeks 324
state of law, and forms of justice 325
the martial spirit of the people, how supported 329
great reductions of the coin practised by, at particular exigencies 396
modern, how the zeal of the inferior clergy of, is kept alive 330
the clergy of, one great spiritual army dispersed in different quarters over Europe 335
their power during the feudal monkish ages similar to that of the temporal barons 336
their power, how reduced 337
why a town of great trade 138
remarks on his account of the ancient price of wheat in Scotland 77
was civilized under Peter the Great by a standing army 296
why no sensible inconvenience felt by the great numbers disbanded at the close of a war 190
account of foreign salt imported into Scotland, and of Scotch salt delivered duty free for the fishery 288
is an object of heavy taxation everywhere 369
the collection of the duty on, expensive 380
the land-tax how assessed there 352
Saxon lords
their authority and jurisdiction as great before the Conquest as those of the Normans were afterwards 168
parochial, observations on 328
is the great antidote to the poison of enthusiasm and superstition 333
his Spanish militia rendered superior to the Carthaginian militia by discipline and service 294
compared with England as to the prices of labour and provisions 31
remarks on the population of the Highlands 33
the market rate of interest higher than the legal rate 37
the situation of cottagers there described 49
apprenticeships and corporations 51
the common people of, why neither so strong nor so handsome as the same class in England 68
cause of the frequent emigrations from 80
progress of agriculture there before the union with England 93
present obstructions to better husbandry 93, 94
the price of wool reduced by the Union 99
amount of the circulating money there before the Union 99
amount of the present circulating cash 121
difficulties occasioned by these banks issuing too much paper 123
necessary caution for some time observed by the banks in giving credit to their customers, with the good effects of it 124
the scheme of drawing and redrawing adopted by traders 126
its pernicious tendency explained 126, 127
history of the Ayr bank 128
Law's scheme to improve the country 130
the prices of goods in, not altered by paper currency 133
effect of the optional clauses in their notes 133
cause of the speedy establishment of the Reformation there 339
the disorders attending popular elections of the clergy there, occasioned the right of patronage to be established 339
amount of the whole revenue of the clergy 342
Sea service
and military service by land, compared 45
Sects in religion
the more numerous, the better for society 332
why they generally profess the austere system of morality 333
the governing principle in the intercourse of human society 6
menial, distinguished from hired workmen 135
the various orders of men who rank in the former class in reference to their labour 136
their labour unproductive 280
of the poor, brief review of the English laws relating to 57
the removals of the poor a violation of natural liberty 59
the law of, ought to be repealed 191
frequently killed in Spain for the sake of the fleece and the tallow 97
severe laws against the exportation of them and their wool 268
war, how supported by a nation of 289
inequality of fortune among, the source of great authority 298
birth and family highly honoured in nations of shepherds 298
inequality of fortune first began to take place in the age of shepherds 299
and introduced civil government 299
how rents are estimated and paid there 61
Silk manufacture
how transferred from Lucca to Venice 166
the first standard coinage of the northern subverters of the Roman empires 16
its proportional value to gold regulated by law 17
is the measure of the value of gold 17
mint price of silver in England 17
inquiry into the difference between the mint and market price of bullion 17, 18
how to preserve the silver coin from being melted down for profit 18
the mines of, in Europe, why generally abandoned 71
evidences of the small profit they yield to the proprietors in Peru 71
qualities for which this metal is valued 72
the most abundant mines of, would add little to the wealth of the world 73
but the increase in the quantity of, would depreciate its own value 74
circumstances that might counteract this effect 74
historical view of the variations in the value of, during the four last centuries 74, 75
remarks on its rise in value compared with corn 76
circumstances that might have misled writers in reviewing the value of silver 76
corn the best standard for judging of the real value of silver 79
the price of, how affected by the increase of quantity 79
the value of, sunk by the discovery of the American mines 81
when the reduction of its value from this cause appears to have been completed 81
tax paid from the Peruvian mines to the king of Spain 85
the value of silver kept up by an extension of the market 85
is the most profitable commodity that can be sent to China 86
the value of, how proportioned to that of gold before and after the discovery of the American mines 89
the quantity commonly in the market in proportion to that of gold probably greater than their relative values indicate 89
the value of, probably rising, and why 90, 91
the opinion of a depreciation of its value not well founded 100
the real value of, degraded by the bounty on the exportation of corn 207
Sinking fund
in the British finances explained 389
is inadequate to the discharge of former debts, and almost wholly applied to other purposes 391
motives to the misapplication of it 391, 392
the labour of, dearer to the masters than that of freemen 53
under feudal lords, circumstances of their situation 159
countries where this order of men still remains 159
why the service of slave is preferred to that of freemen 159
their labour why unprofitable 159
causes of the abolishing of slavery throughout the greater part of Europe 160
receive more protection from the magistrate in an arbitrary government than in one that is free 241
why employed in manufactures by the ancient Grecians 284
why no improvements are to be expected from them 284
a tempting, but generally a ruinous employment 46
encouraged by high duties 373
remedies against 374
the crime of, morally considered 381
human, the first principles of 6
remarks on their motives for engaging in the military line 45
comparison between the land and sea service 45
why no sensible inconvenience felt by the disbanding of great numbers after a war is over 190
reason of their first serving for pay 291
how they became a distinct class of the people 292
how distinguished from the militia 292
alteration in their exercise produced by the invention of fire-arms 292
South Sea company
amazing capital once enjoyed by 311
mercantile and stock-jobbing projects of 312
assiento contract 312
whale fishery 312
the capital of, turned into annuity stock 312, 388
three duties only necessary for him to attend to for supporting a system of natural liberty 286
how he is to protect the society from external violence 289, 296
and the members of it from the injustice and oppression of each other 297
and to maintain public works and institutions 302
Sovereign and trader
inconsistent characters 344
One of the poorest countries in Europe, notwithstanding its rich mines 101
its commerce has produced no considerable manufactures for distant sale, and the greater part of the country remains uncultivated 171, 172
spanish mode of estimating their American discoveries 173
the value of gold, and silver there depreciated by laying a tax on the exportation of them 208
agriculture and manufactures there discouraged by the redundancy of gold and silver 208, 209
natural consequences that would result from taking away this tax 209
the real and pretended motives of the court of Castile for taking possession of the countries discovered by Columbus 230
the tax on gold and silver, how reduced 230
gold the object of all the enterprises to the new world 230
the colonies of, less populous than those of any other European nation 232, 233
asserted an exclusive claim to all America, until the miscarriage of their invincible armada 233
policy of the trade with the colonies 236
the American establishments of, effected by private adventurers, who received little beyond permission from the government 242
lost its manufactures by acquiring rich and fertile colonies 251
the alcavala tax there explained 381
the ruin of the Spanish manufactures attributed to it 381
a distinct employment in improved society 5
speculative merchants described 47
public performers on, paid for the contempt attending their profession 44
the political use of dramatic representations 334
Stamp duties
in England and Holland, remarks on 363, 364, 365
tenants in Scotland, what 160
the profits raised on, in manufactures, explained 20
in trade, an increase of, raises wages, and diminishes profit 36
must be larger in a great town than in a country village 37
natural consequences of a deficiency of stock in new colonies 38
the profits on, little affected by the easiness or difficulty of learning a trade 43
but by the risk or disagreeableness of the business 46
stock employed for profit sets into motion the greater part of useful labour 106
no accumulation of, necessary in the rude state of society 111
the accumulation of, necessary to the division of labour 111
stock distinguished into two parts 112
the general stock of a country or society explained 113
houses 113
improved land 113
personal abilities 113
money and provisions 114
raw materials and manufactured goods 114
stock of individuals, how employed 115
is frequently buried or concealed in arbitrary countries 115
the profits on, decrease in proportion as the quantity increases 137
on what principles stock is lent and borrowed at interest 144
that of every society divided among different employments, in the proportion most agreeable to the public interest, by the private views of individuals 260
the natural distribution of, deranged by monopolizing systems 261
every derangement of, injurious to the society 262
mercantile, is barren and unproductive, according to the French agricultural system of political economy 277
how far the revenue from, is an object of taxation 357
a tax on, intended under the land-tax 358
why cheaply manufactured in Scotland 49
when first introduced into England 104
Stone quarries
their value depends on situation 69, 74
precious, of no use but for ornament, and how the price of, is regulated 73
the most abundant mines, would add little to the wealth of the world 73
how introduced into society 297
personal qualifications 297
age and fortune 297
birth 298
birth and fortune two great sources of personal distinction 298
old, in the English customs, the drawbacks upon 203
origin and import of the term 372
a very profitable article of cultivation 66, 159
drawbacks on the importation of, from England 204
might be cultivated by the drill-plough, instead of all hand-labour by slaves 241
a proper subject for taxation, as an article sold at monopoly price 378
Sumptuary laws
superfluous restraints on the common people 142
present state of the Dutch colony there 234
establishment of the Reformation in Berne and Zurich 338
the clergy there zealous and industrious 342
taxes how paid there 359, 363
in France, the nature of that tax, and its operation, explained 161
natural, not so various in different men as is supposed 7
their manner of conducting war 289
their invasions dreadful 289
his account of the diamond mines of Golconda and Visiapour 73
the origin of, under the feudal government 162
the sources from whence they must arise 347
unequal taxes 347
ought to be clear and certain 347
ought to be levied at the times most convenient for payment 347
ought to take as little as possible out of the pockets of the people more than is brought into the public treasury 348
the land-tax of Great Britain 348
land-tax of Venice 349
improvements suggested for a land-tax 349
mode of assessing the land-tax in Prussia 351
tithes a very unequal tax, and a discouragement to improvement 352
operation of tax on house rent, payable by the tenant 354
a proportionable tax on houses the best source of revenue 355
how far the revenue from stock is a proper object of taxation 357
whether interest of money is proper for taxation 357
how taxes are paid at Hamburgh 339
in Switzerland 339
taxes upon particular employments 339
poll-taxes 362
taxes badges of liberty 362
taxes upon the transfer of property 362
stamp duties 363
on whom the several kinds of taxes principally fall 364
taxes upon the wages of labour 365
capitation taxes 367
taxes upon consumable commodities 368
upon necessaries 368
upon luxuries 368
principal necessaries taxed 369
absurdities in taxation 370
different parts of Europe very highly taxed 370
two different methods of taxing consumable commodities 370
sir Matthew Decker's scheme of taxation considered 371
excise and customs 371
taxation sometimes not an instrument of revenue, but of monopoly 373
improvements of the customs suggested 374
taxes paid in the price of a commodity little adverted to 379, 380
on luxuries, the good and bad properties of 380
bad effects of farming them out 383
how the finances of France might be reformed 384
french and English taxations compared 384
new taxes always generate discontent 391, 392
how far the British system of taxation might be applicable to all the different provinces of the empire 397
such a plan might speedily discharge the national debt 399
great importation and consumption of that drug in Britain 86
Teachers in Universities
tendency of endowments to diminish their application 319
the jurisdictions to which they are subject little calculated to quicken their diligence 319
are frequently obliged to gain protection by servility 319
defects in their establishments 319, 320
teachers among the ancient Greeks and Romans superior to those of modern times 326
circumstances which draw good ones to, or drain them from, the universities 340
their employment naturally renders them eminent in letters 341
feudal, general observations on 137
described 157
monkish, the complexion of 323
salary paid to counsellor or judge in the parliament of 301
average rent of the mines of in Cornwall 71
yield a greater profit to the proprietors than the silver mines of Peru 71, 72
regulations under which tin mines are worked 72
why an unequal tax 352
the levying of, a great discouragement to improvements 352
the fixing a modus for, a relief to the farmer 353
the culture of, why restrained in Europe 66
not so profitable an article of cultivation in the West Indies as sugar 66
the amount and course of the British trade with, explained 153
the whole duty upon, drawn back on exportation 204
consequences of the exclusive trade Britain enjoys with Maryland and Virginia in this article 244
for passage over roads, bridges, and navigable canals, the equity of, shewn 303
upon carriages of luxury, ought to be higher than upon carriages of utility 303
the management of turnpikes often an object of just complaint 304
why government ought not to have the management of turnpikes 304, 379
Tonnage and poundage
origin of those duties 372
in the French finances, what, with the derivation of the name 390
the places where industry is most profitably exerted 53
the spirit of combination prevalent among manufacturers 53, 54
according to what circumstances the general character of the inhabitants as to industry is formed 137
the reciprocal nature of the trade between them and the country explained 155
subsist on the surplus produce of the country 155
how first formed 156
are continual fairs 156
the original poverty and servile state of the inhabitants of 162
their early exemptions and privileges, how obtained 162
the inhabitants of, obtained liberty much earlier than the occupiers of land in the country 163
origin of free burghs 163
origin of corporations 163
why allowed to form militia 164
how the increase and riches of commercial towns contributed to the improvement of the countries to which they belonged 167
double interest deemed a reasonable mercantile profit in 40
four general classes of, equally necessary to, and dependent on, each other 147
wholesale, three different sorts of 151
the different returns of home and foreign trade 151
the nature and operation of the carrying trade examined 152
the principles of foreign trade examined 153
the trade between town and country explained 155
original poverty and servile state of the inhabitants of towns under feudal government 162
exemptions and privileges granted to them 162
extension of commerce by rude nations selling their own raw produce for the manufactures of more civilised countries 165
its salutary effects on the government and manners of a country 167
subverted the feudal authority 168
the independence of tradesmen and artizans explained 169
the capitals acquired by, very precarious, until some part has been realised by the cultivation and improvement of land 172
over-trading, the cause of complaints of the scarcity of money 176
the importation of gold and silver not the principal benefit derived from foreign trade 181
and by the discovery of a passage to the East Indies round the Cape of Good Hope 181
error of commercial writers in estimating national wealth by gold and silver 182
inquiry into the cause and effect of restraints upon trade 182
individuals, by pursuing their own interest, unknowingly promote that of the public 184
legal regulations, of trade unsafe 184
retaliatory regulations between nations 189
measures for laying trade open ought to be carried into execution slowly 191
policy of the restraints on trade between France and Britain considered 192
no certain criterion to determine on which side the balance of trade between two countries turns 192
most of the regulations of, founded on a mistaken doctrine of the balance of trade 199
is generally founded on narrow principles of policy 201
drawbacks of duties 203
the dealer who employs his whole stock on one single branch of business has an advantage of the same kind with the workman who employs his whole labour on a single operation 216
consequences of drawing it from a number of small channels into one great channel 249
colony trade, and the monopoly of that trade distinguished 250
the interest of the consumer constantly sacrificed to that of the producer 274
advantages attending a perfect freedom of, to landed nations, according to the present agricultural system of political economy in France 278
origin of foreign trade 279
consequences of high duties and prohibitions in landed nations 279
how trade augments the revenue of a country 281
nature of the trading intercourse between the inhabitants of towns and those of the country 285
cause and effect of the separation of 3
origin of 7
Transit duties
explained 379
for education, summary view of the effects of 324
the term explained 115
why an important branch of revenue under the ancient feudal governments 385
why formerly accumulated by princes 180
Turkey company
short historical view of 308
the emoluments of the teachers in, how far calculated to promote their diligence 319
the professors at Oxford have mostly given up teaching 319
those in France subject to incompetent jurisdictions 319
the privileges of graduates improperly obtained 320
abuse of lectureships 320
the discipline of, seldom calculated for the benefit of the students 320
are in England more corrupted than the public schools 321
original foundation of 321
how Latin became an essential article in academical education 321
how the study of the Greek language was introduced 321, 322
the three great branches of the Greek philosophy 322
are now divided into five branches 322
the monkish course of education in 323
have not been very ready to adopt improvements 323
are not well calculated to prepare men for the world 324
how filled with good professors or drained of them 340
where the worst and best professors are generally to be met with 340, 341
the term defined 12
Vedius Pollio
his cruelty to his slaves checked by the Roman emperor Augustus, which could not have been done under the republican form of government 241
origin of the silk manufacture in that city 166
traded in East India goods before the sea track round the Cape of Good Hope was discovered 228, 229
nature of the land-tax in that republic 349
the price of, in Britain, does not compensate the expense of a deer park 94
Vicesima hereditatum
among the ancient Romans, the nature of, explained 363
how first formed 156
probable cause of the wearing out of that tenure in Europe 160, 161
the most profitable part of agriculture, both among the ancients and moderns 65
great advantages derived from peculiarities of soil in 65
of labour, how settled between masters and workmen 27
the workmen generally obliged to comply with the terms of their employers 27
the opposition of workmen outrageous, and seldom successful 28
circumstances which operate to raise wages 28
the extent of wages limited by the funds from which they arise 28
why higher in North America than in England 28
are low in countries that are stationary 28
not oppressively low in Great Britain 30
a distinction made here between the wages in summer and in winter 31
if sufficient in dear years, they must be ample in seasons of plenty 31
different rates of, in different places 31
liberal wages encourage industry and propagation 33
an advance of, necessarily raises the price of many commodities 36
an average of, not easily ascertained 37
the operation of high wages and high profits compared 41
causes of the variations of, in different employments 41
are generally higher in new, than in old trades 48, 57
legal regulations of, destroy industry and ingenuity 59, 60
natural effect of a direct tax upon 365
Sir Robert, his excise scheme defended 375
of mankind, how supplied through the operation of labour 9, 10
how extended, in proportion to their supply 69
the far greater part of them supplied from the produce of other men's labour 111
foreign, the funds for the maintenance of, in the present century, have little dependence on the quantity of gold and silver in a nation 178, 179
how supported by a nation of hunters 289
by a nation of shepherds 289
by a nation of husbandmen 290
men of military age, what proportion they bear to the whole society 290
feudal wars, how supported 290
causes which, in the advanced state of society, rendered it impossible for those who took the field, to maintain themselves 290
how the art of war became a distinct profession 291
distinction between the militia and regular forces 292
alteration in the art of war produced by the invention of fire-arms 292, 296
importance of discipline 293
macedonian army 294
carthaginian army 294
roman army 294
feudal armies 295
a well regulated standing army, the only defence of a civilized country, and the only means for speedily civilizing a barbarous country 296
the want of parsimony during peace, imposes on states the necessity of contracting debts to carry on war 386, 391
why war is agreeable to those who live secure from the immediate calamities of it 391
advantages of raising the supplies for, within the year 394
movements, great reduction in the prices of, owing to mechanical improvements 103
and money, synonymous terms, in popular language 173, 182
spanish and Tartarian estimate of, compared 173
the great authority conferred by the possession of 298
the profits of, why necessarily greater than those of spinners 21
West Indies
discovered by Columbus 229
how they obtained this name 229
the original native productions of 229
the thirst of gold the object of all the Spanish enterprises there 230
and of those of every other European nation 231
the remoteness of, greatly in favour of the European colonies there 232
the sugar colonies of France better governed than those of Britain 241
in Britain, how rated 357
tends to reduce house rent 357
market, chronological table of the prices of corn at 109
the cheapness of, would be a cause of sobriety 200
the carrying trade in, encouraged by English statutes 204
the price of, rises in proportion as a country is cultivated 70
the growth of young trees prevented by cattle 70
when the planting of trees becomes a profitable employment 70
the produce of rude countries, commonly carried to a distant market 97
the price of, in England, has fallen considerably since the time of Edward III. 97
causes of this diminution in price 98
the price of, considerably reduced in Scotland, by the Union with England 99
severity of the laws against the exportation of 268
restraints upon the inland commerce of 269
restraints upon the coasting trade of 269
pleas on which these restraints are founded 269
the price of wool depressed by these regulations 270
the exportation of, ought to be allowed, subject to a duty 271
cloth, the present prices of, compared with those at the close of the fifteenth century 104
three mechanical improvements introduced in the manufacture of 104, 105