But it so happens, that many of the 
principal proprietors of the sugar plantations 
reside in Great Britain. Their rents are remitted 
to them in sugar and rum, the produce 
of their estates. The sugar and rum which 
the West India merchants purchase in those 
colonies upon their own account, are not equal 
in value to the goods which they annually sell 
there. A balance, therefore, must necessarily 
he paid to them in gold and silver, and this 
balance, too, is generally found. 
The difficulty and irregularity of payment 
from the different colonies to Great Britain
have not been at all in proportion to the greatness 
or smallness of the balances which were 
respectively due from them. Payments have, 
in general, been more regular from the northern 
than from the tobacco colonies, though 
the former have generally paid a pretty large 
balance in money, while the latter have either 
paid no balance, or a much smaller one. The 
difficulty of getting payment from our different 
sugar colonies has been greater or less 
in proportion, not so much to the extent of 
the balances respectively due from them, as to 
the quantity of uncultivated land which they 
contained; that is, to the greater or smaller 
temptation which the planters have been under 
of over-trading, or of undertaking the 
settlement and plantation of greater quantities 
of waste land than suited the extent of their 
capitals. The returns from the great island 
of Jamaica, where there is still much uncultivated 
land, have, upon this account, been, in 
general, more irregular and uncertain than 
those from the smaller islands of Barbadoes
Antigua, and St. Christopher's, which have, 
for these many years, been completely cultivated
and have, upon that account, afforded 
less field for the speculations of the planter
The new acquisitions of Grenada, Tobago, 
St. Vincent's, and Dominica, have opened
new field for speculations of this kind; and 
the returns from those islands have of late been 
as irregular and uncertain as those from the 
great island of Jamaica
It is not, therefore, the poverty of the colonies 
which occasions, in the greater part of 
them, the present scarcity of gold and silver 
money. Their great demand for active and 
productive stock makes it convenient for them 
to have as little dead stock as possible, and 
disposes them, upon that account, to content 
themselves with a cheaper, though less commodious 
instrument of commerce, than gold 
and silver. They are thereby enabled to convert 
the value of that gold and silver into the 
instruments of trade, into the materials of clothing
into household furniture, and into the 
iron work necessary for building and extending 
their settlements and plantations. In 
those branches of business which cannot be 
transacted without gold and silver money, it 
appears, that they can always find the necessary 
quantity of those metals; and if they 
frequently do not find it, their failure is generally 
the effect, not of their necessary poverty, 
but of their unnecessary and excessive 
enterprise. It is not because they are poor 
that their payments are irregular and uncertain
but because they are too eager to become 
excessively rich. Though all that part of the 
produce of the colony taxes, which was over 
and above what was necessary for defraying 
the expense of their own civil and military 
establishments, were to be remitted to Great 
Britain in gold and silver, the colonies have 
abundantly wherewithal to purchase the requisite 
quantity of those metals. They would 
in this case be obliged, indeed, to exchange
part of their surplus produce, with which they 
now purchase active and productive stock, for 
dead stock. In transacting their domestic 
business, they would be obliged to employ a 
costly, instead of a cheap instrument of commerce
and the expense of purchasing this 
costly instrument might damp somewhat the 
vivacity and ardour of their excessive enterprise 
in the improvement of land. It might 
not, however, be necessary to remit any part 
of the American revenue in gold and silver
It might be remitted in bills drawn upon, and 
accepted by, particular merchants or companies 
in Great Britain, to whom a part of the 
surplus produce of America had been consigned
who would pay into the treasury the 
American revenue in money, after having 
themselves received the value of it in goods
and the whole business might frequently be 
transacted without exporting a single ounce 
of gold or silver from America
It is not contrary to justice, that both Ireland 
and America should contribute towards 
the discharge of the public debt of Great Britain
That debt has been contracted in support 
of the government established by the Revolution
a government to which the protestants 
of Ireland owe, not only the whole authority 
which they at present enjoy in their 
own country, but every security which they 
possess for their liberty, their property, and 
their religion; a government to which several 
of the colonies of America owe their present 
charters, and consequently their present constitution; 
and to which all the colonies of 
America owe the liberty, security, and property
which they have ever since enjoyed
That public debt has been contracted in the 
defence, not of Great Britain alone, but of 
all the different provinces of the empire. The 
immense debt contracted in the late war in 
particular, and a great part of that contracted 
in the war before, were both properly contracted 
in defence of America
By a union with Great Britain, Ireland 
would gain, besides the freedom of trade, 
other advantages much more important, and 
which would much more than compensate any 
increase of taxes that might accompany that 
union. By the union with England, the