without any difficulty, the work which 
Henry VIII. had begun
In some countries, as in Scotland, where 
the government was weak, unpopular, and 
not very firmly established, the reformation 
was strong enough to overturn, not only the 
church, but the state likewise, for attempting 
to support the church
Among the followers of the reformation
dispersed in all the different countries of Europe
there was no general tribunal, which, 
like that of the court of Rome, or an œcumenical 
council, could settle all disputes 
among them, and, with irresistible authority
prescribe to all of them the precise limits of 
orthodoxy. When the followers of the reformation 
in one country, therefore, happened 
to differ from their brethren in another, as 
they had no common judge to appeal to, the 
dispute could never be decided; and many 
such disputes arose among them. Those 
concerning the government of the church, and 
the right of conferring ecclesiastical benefices
were perhaps the most interesting to the 
peace and welfare of civil society. They 
gave birth, accordingly, to the two principal 
parties or sects among the followers of the 
reformation, the Lutheran and Calvinistic 
sects, the only sects among them, of which 
the doctrine and discipline have ever yet been 
established by law in any part of Europe
The followers of Luther, together with 
what is called the church of England, preserved 
more or less of the episcopal government
established subordination among the 
clergy, gave the sovereign the disposal of all 
the bishoprics, and other consistorial benefices 
within his dominions, and thereby rendered 
him the real head of the church; and 
without depriving the bishop of the right of 
collating to the smaller benefices within his 
diocese, they, even to those benefices, not 
only admitted, but favoured the right of presentation
both in the sovereign and in all 
other lay patrons. This system of church 
government was, from the beginning, favourable 
to peace and good order, and to 
submission to the civil sovereign. It has 
never, accordingly, been the occasion of any 
tumult or civil commotion in any country in 
which it has once been established. The 
church of England, in particular, has always 
valued herself, with great reason, upon the 
unexceptionable loyalty of her principles
Under such a government, the clergy naturally 
endeavour to recommend themselves 
to the sovereign, to the court, and to the 
nobility and gentry of the country, by whose 
influence they chiefly expect to obtain preferment
They pay court to those patrons
sometimes, no doubt, by the vilest flattery 
and assentation; but frequently, too, by cultivating 
all those arts which best deserve, and 
which are therefore most likely to gain them, 
the esteem of people of rank and fortune
by their knowledge in all the different 
branches of useful and ornamental learning
by the decent liberality of their manners, by 
the social good humour of their conversation, 
and by their avowed contempt of those absurd 
and hypocritical austerities which fanatics inculcate 
and pretend to practise, in order to 
draw upon themselves the veneration, and 
upon the greater part of men of rank and 
fortune, who avow that they do not practise 
them, the abhorrence of the common people
Such a clergy, however, while they pay their 
court in this manner to the higher ranks of 
life, are very apt to neglect altogether the 
means of maintaining their influence and authority 
with the lower. They are listened to, 
esteemed, and respected by their superiors
but before their inferiors they are frequently 
incapable of defending, effectually, and to 
the conviction of such hearers, their own sober 
and moderate doctrines, against the most 
ignorant enthusiast who chooses to attack 
The followers of Zuinglius, or more properly 
those of Calvin, on the contrary, bestowed 
upon the people of each parish, whenever 
the church became vacant, the right of 
electing their own pastor; and established
at the same time, the most perfect equality 
among the clergy. The former part of this 
institution, as long as it remained in vigour
seems to have been productive of nothing 
but disorder and confusion, and to have tended 
equally to corrupt the morals both of the 
clergy and of the people. The latter part 
seems never to have had any effects but what 
were perfectly agreeable
As long as the people of each parish preserved 
the right of electing their own pastors
they acted almost always under the influence 
of the clergy, and generally of the most factious 
and fanatical of the order. The clergy
in order to preserve their influence in those 
popular elections, became, or affected to become, 
many of them, fanatics themselves, 
encouraged fanaticism among the people, and 
gave the preference almost always to the 
most fanatical candidate. So small a matter 
as the appointment of a parish priest, occasioned 
almost always a violent contest, not 
only in one parish, but in all the neighbouring 
parishes who seldom failed to take part 
in the quarrel. When the parish happened 
to be situated in a great city, it divided all 
the inhabitants into two parties; and when 
that city happened, either to constitute itself 
a little republic, or to be the head and capital 
of a little republic, as in the case with many 
of the considerable cities in Switzerland and 
Holland, every paltry dispute of this kind, 
over and above exasperating the animosity of 
all their other factions, threatened to leave 
behind it, both a new schism in the church
and a new faction in the state. In those 
small republics, therefore, the magistrate very