disorders. An instructed and intelligent people
besides, are always more decent and orderly 
than an ignorant and stupid one. They 
feel themselves, each individually, more respectable
and more likely to obtain the respect 
of their lawful superiors, and they are, 
therefore, more disposed to respect those superiors
They are more disposed to examine, 
and more capable of seeing through, the interested 
complaints of faction and sedition
and they are, upon that account, less apt to 
be misled into any wanton or unnecessary opposition 
to the measures of government. In 
free countries, where the safety of government 
depends very much upon the favourable 
judgment which the people may form 
of its conduct, it must surely be of the highest 
importance, that they should not be disposed 
to judge rashly or capriciously concerning it. 
ART. III.—Of the Expense of the Institutions 
for the Instruction of People of all Ages
The institutions for the instruction of people 
of all ages, are chiefly those for religious 
instruction. This is a species of instruction
which the object is not so much to render 
the people good citizens in this world, as to 
prepare them for another and a better world 
in the life to come. The teachers of the 
doctrine which contains this instruction, in 
the same manner as other teachers, may either 
depend altogether for their subsistence upon 
the voluntary contributions of their hearers
or they may derive it from some other fund, 
to which the law of their country may entitle 
them; such as a landed estate, a tythe or 
land tax, an established salary or stipend
Their exertion, their zeal and industry, are 
likely to be much greater in the former situation 
than in the latter. In this respect, the 
teachers of a new religion have always had a 
considerable advantage in attacking these ancient 
and established systems, of which the 
clergy, reposing themselves upon their benefices
had neglected to keep up the fervour of 
faith and devotion in the great body of the 
people; and having given themselves up to 
indolence, were become altogether incapable 
of making any vigorous exertion in defence 
even of their own establishment. The clergy 
of an established and well endowed religion 
frequently become men of learning and elegance, 
who possess all the virtues of gentlemen
or which can recommend them to the 
esteem of gentlemen; but they are apt gradually 
to lose the qualities, both good and 
bad, which gave them authority and influence 
with the inferior ranks of people, and which 
had perhaps been the original causes of the 
success and establishment of their religion
Such a clergy, when attacked by a set of popular 
and bold, though perhaps stupid and 
ignorant enthusiasts, feel themselves as perfectly 
defenceless as the indolent, effeminate, and 
full fed nations of the southern parts of Asia
when they were invaded by the active, hardy, 
and hungry Tartars of the north. Such a 
clergy, upon such an emergency, have commonly 
no other resource than to call upon the 
civil magistrate to persecute, destroy, or 
drive out their adversaries, as disturbers of 
the public peace. It was thus that the Roman 
catholic clergy called upon the civil 
magistrate to persecute the protestants, and 
the church of England to persecute the dissenters
and that in general every religious 
sect, when it has once enjoyed, for a century 
or two, the security of a legal establishment
has found itself incapable of making any 
vigorous defence against any new sect which 
chose to attack its doctrine or discipline
Upon such occasions, the advantage, in point 
of learning and good writing, may sometimes 
be on the side of the established church
But the arts of popularity, all the arts of 
gaining proselytes, are constantly on the side 
of its adversaries. In England, those arts 
have been long neglected by the well endowed 
clergy of the established church, and are 
at present chiefly cultivated by the dissenters 
and by the methodists. The independent 
provisions, however, which in many places 
have been made for dissenting teachers, by 
means of voluntary subscriptions, of trust 
rights, and other evasions of the law, seem 
very much to have abated the zeal and activity 
of those teachers. They have many of 
them become very learned, ingenious, and 
respectable men; but they have in general 
ceased to be very popular preachers. The 
methodists, without half the learning of the 
dissenters, are much more in vogue. 
In the church of Rome the industry and 
zeal of the inferior clergy are kept more alive 
by the powerful motive of self-interest, than 
perhaps in any established protestant church
The parochial clergy derive many of them, a 
very considerable part of their subsistence 
from the voluntary oblations of the people
a source of revenue, which confession gives 
them many opportunities of improving. The 
mendicant orders derive their whole subsistence 
from such oblations. It is with them 
as with the hussars and light infantry of some 
armies; no plunder, no pay. The parochial 
clergy are like those teachers whose reward 
depends partly upon their salary, and partly 
upon the fees or honoraries which they get 
from their pupils; and these must always depend
more or less, upon their industry and 
reputation. The mendicant orders are like 
those teachers whose subsistence depends 
altogether upon their industry. They are 
obliged, therefore, to use every art which can 
animate the devotion of the common people
The establishment of the two great mendicant 
orders of St. Dominic and St. Francis, it is