for the institutions of their ancestors had probably 
disposed them to find much political 
wisdom in what was, perhaps, merely an ancient 
custom, continued, without interruption, 
from the earliest period of those societies, to 
the times in which they had arrived at a considerable 
degree of refinement. Music and 
dancing are the great amusements of almost 
all barbarous nations, and the great accomplishments 
which are supposed to fit any man 
for entertaining his society. It is so at this 
day among the negroes on the coast of Africa
It was so among the ancient Celtes, among 
the ancient Scandinavians, and, as we may 
learn from Homer, among the ancient Greeks
in the times preceding the Trojan war. When 
the Greek tribes had formed themselves into 
little republics, it was natural that the study 
of those accomplishments should for a long 
time make a part of the public and common 
education of the people
The masters who instructed the young people
either in music or in military exercises
do not seem to have been paid, or even appointed 
by the state, either in Rome or even 
at Athens, the Greek republic of whose laws 
and customs we are the best informed. The 
state required that every free citizen should fit 
himself for defending it in war, and should 
upon that account, learn his military exercises
But it left him to learn them of such 
masters as he could find; and it seems to have 
advanced nothing for this purpose, but a public 
field or place of exercise, in which he should 
practise and perform them. 
In the early ages, both of the Greek and 
Roman republics, the other parts of education 
seem to have consisted in learning to read
write, and account, according to the arithmetic 
of the times. These accomplishments the 
richer citizens seem frequently to have acquired 
at home, by the assistance of some domestic 
pedagogue, who was, generally, either a 
slave or a freedman; and the poorer citizens 
in the schools of such masters as made a trade 
of teaching for hire. Such parts of education
however, were abandoned altogether to 
the care of the parents or guardians of each 
individual. It does not appear that the state 
ever assumed any inspection or direction of 
them. By a law of Solon, indeed, the children 
were acquitted from maintaining those parents 
who had neglected to instruct them in 
some profitable trade or business. 
In the progress of refinement, when philosophy 
and rhetoric came into fashion, the better 
sort of people used to send their children 
to the schools of philosophers and rhetoricians, 
in order to be instructed in these fashionable 
sciences. But those schools were not supported 
by the public. They were, for a long time
barely tolerated by it. The demand for philosophy 
and rhetoric was, for a long time, so 
small, that the first professed teachers of either 
could not find constant employment in any 
one city, but were obliged to travel about from 
place to place. In this manner lived Zeno of 
Elea, Protagoras, Gorgias, Hippias, and many 
others. As the demand increased, the schools
both of philosophy and rhetoric, became stationary, 
first in Athens, and afterwards in several 
other cities. The state, however, seems 
never to have encouraged them further, than 
by assigning to some of them a particular 
place to teach in, which was sometimes done, 
too, by private donors. The state seems to 
have assigned the Academy to Plato, the Lyceum 
to Aristotle, and the Portico to Zeno of 
Citta, the founder of the Stoics. But Epicurus 
bequeathed his gardens to his own 
school. Till about the time of Marcus Antoninus
however, no teacher appears to have 
had any salary from the public, or to have had 
any other emoluments, but what arose from 
the honoraries or fees of his scholars. The 
bounty which that philosophical emperor, as 
we learn from Lucian, bestowed upon one of 
the teachers of philosophy, probably lasted no 
longer than his own life. There was nothing 
equivalent to the privileges of graduation
and to have attended any of those schools was 
not necessary, in order to be permitted to 
practise any particular trade or profession. If 
the opinion of their own utility could not 
draw scholars to them, the law neither forced 
anybody to go to them, nor rewarded anybody 
for having gone to them. The teachers had 
no jurisdiction over their pupils, nor any other 
authority besides that natural authority which 
superior virtue and abilities never fail to procure 
from young people towards those who 
are entrusted with any part of their education
At Rome, the study of the civil law made 
a part of the education, not of the greater 
part of the citizens, but of some particular 
families. The young people, however, who 
wished to acquire knowledge in the law, had 
no public school to go to, and had no other 
method of studying it, than by frequenting 
the company of such of their relations and 
friends as were supposed to understand it. 
It is, perhaps, worth while to remark, that 
though the laws of the twelve tables were 
many of them copied from those of some ancient 
Greek republics, yet law never seems 
to have grown up to be a science in any republic 
of ancient Greece. In Rome it became 
a science very early, and gave a considerable 
degree of illustration to those citizens 
who had the reputation of understanding 
it. In the republics of ancient Greece, particularly 
in Athens, the ordinary courts of 
justice consisted of numerous, and therefore 
disorderly, bodies of people, who frequently 
decided almost at random, or as clamour, 
faction, and party-spirit, happened to determine. 
The ignominy of an unjust decision
when it was to be divided among five hundred, 
a thousand, or fifteen hundred people (for