which are to be acquired by success in 
some particular professions may, no doubt
sometimes animate the exertion of a few men 
of extraordinary spirit and ambition. Great 
objects, however, are evidently not necessary, 
in order to occasion the greatest exertions
Rivalship and emulation render excellency
even in mean professions, an object of ambition
and frequently occasion the very greatest 
exertions. Great objects, on the contrary
alone and unsupported by the necessity 
of application, have seldom been sufficient to 
occasion any considerable exertion. In England
success in the profession of the law 
leads to some very great objects of ambition
and yet how few men, born to easy fortunes, 
have ever in this country been eminent in that 
The endowments of schools and colleges 
have necessarily diminished, more or less, the 
necessity of application in the teachers. Their 
subsistence, so far as it arises from their salaries
is evidently derived from a fund, altogether 
independent of their success and reputation 
in their particular professions
In some universities, the salary makes but 
a part, and frequently but a small part, of 
the emoluments of the teacher, of which the 
greater part arises from the honoraries or fees 
of his pupils. The necessity of application, 
though always more or less diminished, is 
not, in this case, entirely taken away. Reputation 
in his profession is still of some importance 
to him, and he still has some dependency 
upon the affection, gratitude, and 
favourable report of those who have attended 
upon his instructions; and these favourable 
sentiments he is likely to gain in no way so 
well as by deserving them, that is, by the 
abilities and diligence with which he discharges 
every part of his duty
In other universities, the teacher is prohibited 
from receiving any honorary or fee 
from his pupils, and his salary constitutes the 
whole of the revenue which he derives from 
his office. His interest is, in this case, set 
as directly in opposition to his duty as it is 
possible to set it. It is the interest of every 
man to live as much at his ease as he can; 
and if his emoluments are to be precisely the 
same, whether he does or does not perform 
some very laborious duty, it is certainly his 
interest, at least as interest is vulgarly understood, 
either to neglect it altogether, or, 
if he is subject to some authority which will 
not suffer him to do this, to perform it in as 
careless and slovenly a manner as that authority 
will permit. If he is naturally active 
and a lover of labour, it is his interest to employ 
that activity in any way from which he 
can derive some advantage, rather than in the 
performance of his duty, from which he can 
derive none. 
If the authority to which he is subject resides 
in the body corporate, the college, or 
university, of which he himself is a member
and in which the greater part of the other 
members are, like himself, persons who either 
are, or ought to be teachers, they are likely 
to make a common cause, to be all very indulgent 
to one another, and every man to 
consent that his neighbour may neglect his 
duty, provided he himself is allowed to neglect 
his own. In the university of Oxford
the greater part of the public professors have, 
for these many years, given up altogether 
even the pretence of teaching
If the authority to which he is subject resides
not so much in the body corporate, of 
which he is a member, as in some other extraneous 
persons, in the bishop of the diocese
for example, in the governor of the province
or, perhaps, in some minister of state, 
it is not, indeed, in this case, very likely that 
he will be suffered to neglect his duty altogether
All that such superiors, however, 
can force him to do, is to attend upon his 
pupils a certain number of hours, that is, to 
give a certain number of lectures in the week, 
or in the year. What those lectures shall 
be, must still depend upon the diligence of 
the teacher; and that diligence is likely to be 
proportioned to the motives which he has for 
exerting it. An extraneous jurisdiction of 
this kind, besides, is liable to be exercised 
both ignorantly and capriciously. In its nature, 
it is arbitrary and discretionary; and 
the persons who exercise it, neither attending 
upon the lectures of the teacher themselves, 
nor perhaps understanding the sciences which 
it is his business to teach, are seldom capable 
of exercising it with judgment. From the 
insolence of office, too, they are frequently 
indifferent how they exercise it, and are very 
apt to censure or deprive him of his office 
wantonly and without any just cause. The 
person subject to such jurisdiction is necessarily 
degraded by it, and, instead of being 
one of the most respectable, is rendered one 
of the meanest and most contemptible persons 
in the society. It is by powerful protection 
only, that he can effectually guard 
himself against the bad usage to which he is 
at all times exposed; and this protection he 
is most likely to gain, not by ability or diligence 
in his profession, but by obsequiousness 
to the will of his superiors, and by being 
ready, at all times, to sacrifice to that will 
the rights, the interest, and the honour of 
the body corporate, of which he is a member
Whoever has attended for any considerable 
time to the administration of a French university
must have had occasion to remark the 
effects which naturally result from an arbitrary 
and extraneous jurisdiction of this kind
Whatever forces a certain number of students 
to any college or university, independent 
of the merit or reputation of the teachers
tends more or less to diminish the necessity 
of that merit or reputation