considerable diminution of his revenue. Without 
the intervention of his labour, Nature 
does herself the greater part of the work which 
remains to be done. But the moment that an 
artificer, a smith, a carpenter, or a weaver
for example, quits his workhouse, the sole 
source of his revenue is completely dried up. 
Nature does nothing for him; he does all for 
himself. When he takes the field, therefore, 
in defence of the public, as he has no revenue 
to maintain himself, he must necessarily be 
maintained by the public. But in a country, 
of which a great part of the inhabitants are 
artificers and manufacturers, a great part 
the people who go to war must be drawn from 
those classes, and must, therefore, be maintained 
by the public as long as they are employed 
in its service
When the art of war, too, has gradually 
grown up to be a very intricate and complicated 
science; when the event of war ceases 
to be determined, as in the first ages of society
by a single irregular skirmish or battle
but when the contest is generally spun out 
through several different campaigns, each of 
which lasts during the greater part of the 
year; it becomes universally necessary that 
the public should maintain those who serve 
the public in war, at least while they are employed 
in that service. Whatever, in time of 
peace, might be the ordinary occupation of 
those who go to war, so very tedious and expensive 
a service would otherwise be by far 
too heavy a burden upon them. After the second 
Persian war, accordingly, the armies of 
Athens seem to have been generally composed 
of mercenary troops, consisting, indeed, partly 
of citizens, but partly, too, of foreigners
and all of them equally hired and paid at the 
expense of the state. From the time of the 
siege of Veii, the armies of Rome received 
pay for their service during the time which 
they remained in the field. Under the feudal 
governments, the military service, both of the 
great lords, and of their immediate dependents
was, after a certain period, universally 
exchanged for a payment in money, which 
was employed to maintain those who served 
in their stead
The number of those who can go to war
in proportion to the whole number of the 
people, is necessarily much smaller in a civilized 
than in a rude state of society. In 
a civilized society, as the soldiers are maintained 
altogether by the labour of those 
who are not soldiers, the number of the former 
can never exceed what the latter can 
maintain, over and above maintaining, in a 
manner suitable to their respective stations
both themselves and the other officers of government 
and law, whom they are obliged to 
maintain. In the little agrarian states of ancient 
Greece, a fourth or a fifth part of the 
whole body of the people considered themselves 
as soldiers, and would sometimes, it is 
said, take the field. Among the civilized nations 
of modern Europe, it is commonly computed
that not more than the one hundredth 
part of the inhabitants of any country can be 
employed as soldiers, without ruin to the 
country which pays the expense of their service. 
The expense of preparing the army for the 
field seems not to have become considerable 
in any nation, till long after that of maintaining 
it in the field had devolved entirely upon 
the sovereign or commonwealth. In all the 
different republics of ancient Greece, to learn 
his military exercises, was a necessary part of 
education imposed by the state upon every 
free citizen. In every city there seems to 
have been a public field, in which, under the 
protection of the public magistrate, the young 
people were taught their different exercises 
by different masters. In this very simple institution 
consisted the whole expense which 
any Grecian state seems ever to have been at, 
in preparing its citizens for war. In ancient 
Rome, the exercises of the Campus Martius 
answered the same purpose with those of the 
Gymnasium in ancient Greece. Under the 
feudal governments, the many public ordinances
that the citizens of every district should 
practise archery, as well as several other military 
exercises, were intended for promoting 
the same purpose, but do not seem to have 
promoted it so well. Either from want of 
interest in the officers entrusted with the execution 
of those ordinances, or from some other 
cause, they appear to have been universally 
neglected; and in the progress of all those 
governments, military exercises seem to have 
gone gradually into disuse among the great 
body of the people. 
In the republic of ancient Greece and 
Rome, during the whole period of their existence
and under the feudal governments, for 
a considerable time after their first establishment, 
the trade of a soldier was not a separate
distinct trade, which constituted the sole 
or principal occupation of a particular class of 
citizens; every subject of the state, whatever 
might be the ordinary trade or occupation by 
which he gained his livelihood, considered 
himself, upon all ordinary occasions, as fit 
likewise to exercise the trade of a soldier, and, 
upon many extraordinary occasions, as bound 
to exercise it. 
The art of war, however, as it is certainly 
the noblest of all arts, so, in the progress of 
improvement, it necessarily becomes one of 
most complicated among them. The state 
of the mechanical, as well as some other arts
with which it is necessarily connected, determines 
the degree of perfection to which it is 
capable of being carried at any particular 
time. But in order to carry it to this degree 
of perfection, it is necessary that it should become 
the sole or principal occupation of a 
particular class of citizens; and the division