chiefs or sovereigns) is at no sort of expense 
in preparing him for the field; and when he 
is in it, the chance of plunder is the only pay 
which he either expects or requires
An army of hunters can seldom exceed two 
or three hundred men. The precarious subsistence 
which the chace affords, could seldom 
allow a greater number to keep together for 
any considerable time. An army of shepherds
on the contrary, may sometimes amount 
to two or three hundred thousand. As long 
as nothing stops their progress, as long as they 
can go on from one district, of which they 
have consumed the forage, to another, which 
is yet entire; there seems to be scarce any 
limit to the number who can march on together. 
A nation of hunters can never be 
formidable to the civilized nations in their 
neighbourhood; a nation of shepherds may. 
Nothing can be more contemptible than an 
Indian war in North America; nothing, on 
the contrary, can be more dreadful than a 
Tartar invasion has frequently been in Asia
The judgement of Thucydides, that both Europe 
and Asia could not resist the Scythians 
united, has been verified by the experience of 
all ages. The inhabitants of the extensive, 
but defenceles plains of Scythia or Tartary, 
have been frequently united under the dominion 
of the chief of some conquering horde 
or clan; and the havock and devastation of 
Asia have always signalized their union. The 
inhabitants of the inhospitable deserts of 
Arabia, the other great nation of shepherds
have never been united but once, under Mahomet 
and his immediate successors. Their 
union, which was more the effect of religious 
enthusiasm than of conquest, was signalized 
in the same manner. If the hunting nations 
of America should ever become shepherds
their neighbourhood would be much more 
dangerous to the European colonies than it is 
at present
In a yet more advanced state of society
among those nations of husbandmen who have 
little foreign commerce, and no other manufactures 
but those coarse and household ones, 
which almost every private family prepares 
for its own use, every man, in the same 
manner, either is a warrior, or easily becomes 
such. Those who live by agriculture generally 
pass the whole day in the open air, exposed 
to all the inclemencies of the seasons. 
The hardiness of their ordinary life prepares 
them for the fatigues of war, to some of which 
their necessary occupations bear a great analogy
The necessary occupation of a ditcher 
prepares him to work in the trenches, and to 
fortify a camp, as well as to inclose a field
The ordinary pastimes of such husbandmen 
are the same as those of shepherds, and are in 
the same manner the images of war. But as 
husbandmen have less leisure than shepherds
they are not so frequently employed in those 
pastimes. They are soldiers, but soldiers not 
quite so much masters of their exercise. Such 
as they are, however, it seldom costs the sovereign 
or commonwealth any expense to prepare 
them for the field
Agriculture, even in its rudest and lowest 
state, supposes a settlement, some sort of fixed 
habitation, which cannot be abandoned 
without great loss. When a nation of mere 
husbandmen, therefore, goes to war, the whole 
people cannot take the field together. The 
old men, the women and children, at least, 
must remain at home, to take care of the habitation
All the men of the military age
however, may take the field, and in small nations 
of this kind, have frequently done so. 
In every nation, the men of the military age 
are supposed to amount to about a fourth or 
a fifth part of the whole body of the people
If the campaign, too, should begin after seed-time
and end before harvest, both the husbandman 
and his principal labourers can be 
spared from the farm without much loss. He 
trusts that the work which must be done in 
the mean time, can be well enough executed 
by the old men, the women, and the children
He is not unwilling, therefore, to serve without 
pay during a short campaign; and it frequently 
costs the sovereign or commonwealth 
as little to maintain him in the field as to prepare 
him for it. The citizens of all the different 
states of ancient Greece seem to have 
served in this manner till after the second 
Persian war; and the people of Peloponnesus 
till after the Peloponnesian war. The 
Peloponnesians, Thucydides observes, generally 
left the field in the summer, and returned 
home to reap the harvest. The Roman 
people, under their kings, and during the first 
ages of the republic, served in the same manner
It was not till the siege of Veii, that 
they who staid at home began to contribute 
something towards maintaining those who 
went to war. In the European monarchies, 
which were founded upon the ruins of the 
Roman empire, both before, and for some 
time after, the establishment of what is properly 
called the feudal law, the great lords, 
with all their immediate dependents, used to 
serve the crown at their own expense. In 
the field, in the same manner as at home
they maintained themselves by their own revenue
and not by any stipend or pay which 
they received from the king upon that particular 
In a more advanced state of society, two 
different causes contribute to render it altogether 
impossible that they who take the field 
should maintain themselves at their own expense
Those two causes are, the progress of 
manufactures, and the improvement in the art 
of war
Though a husbandman should be employed 
in an expedition, provided it begins after seed-time
and ends before harvest, the interruption 
of his business will not always occasion any