Of the Expense of Defence
The first duty of the sovereign, that of protecting 
the society from the violence and 
invasion of other independent societies, can 
be performed only by means of a military 
force. But the expense both of preparing 
this military force in time of peace, and of 
employing it in time of war, is very different 
in the different states of society, in the different 
periods of improvement. 
Among nations of hunters, the lowest and 
rudest state of society, such as we find it 
among the native tribes of North America, 
every man is a warrior, as well as a hunter
When he goes to war, either to defend his 
society, or to revenge the injuries which have 
been done to it by other societies, he maintains 
himself by his own labour, in the same 
manner as when he lives at home. His society 
(for in this state of things there is properly 
neither sovereign nor commonwealth
is at no sort of expense, either to prepare 
him for the field, or to maintain him while he 
is in it. 
Among nations of shepherds, a more advanced 
state of society, such as we find it 
among the Tartar and Arabs, every man is, 
in the same manner a warrior. Such nations 
have commonly no fixed habitation, but live 
either in tents, or in a sort of covered wagons
which are easily transported from place 
to place. The whole tribe, or nation, changes 
its situation according to the different seasons 
of the year, as well as according to other 
accidents. When its herds and flocks have 
consumed the forage of one part of the 
country, it removes to another, and from 
that to a third. In the dry season, it comes 
down to the banks of the rivers; in the wet 
season, it retires to the upper country
When such a nation goes to war, the warriors 
will not trust their herds and flocks to 
the feeble defence of their old men, their 
women and children; and their old men
their women and children, will not be left 
behind without defence, and without subsistence. 
The whole nation, besides, being accustomed 
to a wandering life, even in time 
of peace, easily takes the field in time of war
Whether it marches as an army, or moves 
about as a company of herdsmen, the way of 
life is nearly the same, though the object 
proposed by it be very different. They all 
go to war together, therefore, and every one 
does as well as he can. Among the Tartars
even the women have been frequently known 
to engage in battle. If they conquer, whatever 
belongs to the hostile tribe is the recompence 
of the victory; but if they are vanquished
all is lost; and not only their herds 
and flocks, but their women and children
become the booty of the conqueror. Even 
the greater part of those who survive the action 
are obliged to submit to him for the sake 
of immediate subsistence. The rest are commonly 
dissipated and dispersed in the desert. 
The ordinary life, the ordinary exercise of 
a Tartar or Arab, prepare him sufficiently 
for war. Running, wrestling, cudgel-playing
throwing the javelin, drawing the bow, 
&c. are the common pastimes of those who 
live in the open air, and are all of them the 
images of war. When a Tartar or Arab 
actually goes to war, he is maintained by his 
own herds and flocks, which he carries with 
him, in the same manner as in peace. His 
chief or sovereign (for those nations have all