altogether. The cheapness of the manufactures 
of those landed nations, in consequence 
of the gradual improvements of art and skill
would, in due time, extend their sale beyond 
the home market, and carry them to many 
foreign markets, from which they would, in 
the same manner, gradually justle out many 
of the manufacturers of such mercantile nations
This continual increase, both of the rude 
and manufactured produce of those landed 
nations, would, in due time, create a greater 
capital than could, with the ordinary rate of 
profit, be employed either in agriculture or in 
manufactures. The surplus of this capital 
would naturally turn itself to foreign trade, 
and be employed in exporting, to foreign 
countries, such parts of the rude and manufactured 
produce of its own country, as exceeded 
the demand of the home market. In 
the exportation of the produce of their own 
country, the merchants of a landed nation 
would have an advantage of the same kind 
over those of mercantile nations, which its artificers 
and manufacturers had over the artificers 
and manufacturers of such nations; the 
advantage of finding at home that cargo, and 
those stores and provisions, which the others 
were obliged to seek for at a distance. With 
inferior art and skill in navigation, therefore, 
they would be able to sell that cargo as cheap 
in foreign markets as the merchants of such 
mercantile nations; and with equal art and 
skill they would be able to sell it cheaper
They would soon, therefore, rival those mercantile 
nations in this branch of foreign trade
and, in due time, would justle them out of it 
According to this liberal and generous system
therefore, the most advantageous method 
in which a landed nation can raise up 
artificers, manufacturers, and merchants of its 
own, is to grant the most perfect freedom of 
trade to the artificers, manufacturers, and 
merchants of all other nations. It thereby 
raises the value of the surplus produce of its 
own land, of which the continual increase 
gradually establishes a fund, which, in due 
time, necessarily raises up all the artificers
manufacturers, and merchants, whom it has 
occasion for. 
When a landed nation on the contrary, oppresses
either by high duties or by prohibitions
the trade of foreign nations, it necessarily 
hurts its own interest in two different 
ways. First, by raising the price of all foreign 
goods, and of all sorts of manufactures
it necessarily sinks the real value of the surplus 
produce of its own land, with which, or, 
what comes to the same thing, with the price 
of which, it purchases those foreign goods and 
manufactures. Secondly, by giving a sort of 
monopoly of the home market to its own merchants
artificers, and manufacturers, it raises 
the rate of mercantile and manufacturing profit
in proportion to that of agricultural profit
and, consequently, either draws from 
agriculture a part of the capital which had 
before been employed in it, or hinders from 
going to it a part of what would otherwise 
have gone to it. This policy, therefore, discourages 
agriculture in two different ways
first, by sinking the real value of its produce
and thereby lowering the rate of its profits
and, secondly, by raising the rate of profit in 
all other employments. Agriculture is rendered 
less advantageous, and trade and manufactures 
more advantageous, than they otherwise 
would be; and every man is tempted by his 
own interest to turn, as much as he can, both 
his capital and his industry from the former 
to the latter employments
Though, by this oppressive policy, a landed 
nation should be able to raise up artificers, 
manufacturers, and merchants of its own, 
somewhat sooner than it could do by the freedom 
of trade; a matter, however, which is 
not a little doubtful; yet it would raise them 
up, if one may say so, prematurely, and before 
it was perfectly ripe for them. By raising 
up too hastily one species of industry, it 
would depress another more valuable species 
of industry. By raising up too hastily a species 
of industry which only replaces the stock 
which employs it, together with the ordinary 
profit, it would depress a species of industry 
which, over and above replacing that stock
with its profit, affords likewise a neat produce
a free rent to the landlord. It would 
depress productive labour, by encouraging too 
hastily that labour which is altogether barren 
and unproductive
In what manner, according to this system
the sum total of the annual produce of the 
land is distributed among the three classes 
above mentioned, and in what manner the labour 
of the unproductive class does no more 
than replace the value of its own consumption
without increasing in any respect the 
value of that sum total, is represented by Mr 
Quesnai, the very ingenious and profound 
author of this system, in some arithmetical 
formularies. The first of these formularies
which, by way of eminence, he peculiarly distinguishes 
by the name of the Economical 
Table, represents the manner in which he supposes 
this distribution takes place, in a state 
of the most perfect liberty, and, therefore, of 
the highest prosperity; in a state where the 
annual produce is such as to afford the greatest 
possible neat produce, and where each 
class enjoys its proper share of the whole annual 
produce. Some subsequent formularies 
represent the manner in which he supposes 
this distribution is made in different states of 
restraint and regulation; in which, either the 
class of proprietors, or the barren and unproductive 
class, is more favoured than the class 
of cultivators; and in which either the one or 
the other encroaches, more or less, upon the