the seed, and in the maintenance of the 
farmer's family, servants, and cattle, during 
at least a great part of the first year of his occupancy
or till he can receive some return 
from the land. The annual expenses consist 
in the seed, in the wear and tear of instruments 
of husbandry, and in the annual maintenance 
of the farmer's servants and cattle
and of his family too, so far as any part of 
them can be considered as servants employed 
in cultivation. That part of the produce of 
the land which remains to him after paying 
the rent, ought to be sufficient, first, to replace 
to him, within a reasonable time, at 
least during the term of his occupancy, the 
whole of his original expenses, together with 
the ordinary profits of stock; and, secondly, 
to replace to him annually the whole 
of his annual expenses, together likewise 
with the ordinary profits of stock. Those two 
sorts of expenses are two capitals which the 
farmer employs in cultivation; and unless 
they are regularly restored to him, together 
with a reasonable profit, he cannot carry on 
his employment upon a level with other employments
but, from a regard to his own 
interest, must desert it as soon as possible, 
and see some other. That part of the produce 
of the land which is thus necessary for 
enabling the farmer to continue his business
ought to be considered as a fund sacred to 
cultivation, which, if the landlord violates
he necessarily reduces the produce of his own 
land, and, in a few years, not only disables 
the farmer from paying this racked rent, but 
from paying the reasonable rent which he 
might otherwise have got for his land. The 
rent which properly belongs to the landlord
is no more than the neat produce which remains 
after paying, in the completest manner
all the necessary expenses which must be previously 
laid out, in order to raise the gross or 
the whole produce. It is because the labour 
of the cultivators, over and above paying 
completely all those necessary expenses, affords 
a neat produce of this kind, that this 
class of people are in this system peculiarly 
distinguished by the honourable appellation 
of the productive class. Their original and 
annual expenses are for the same reason called
in this system, productive expenses, because, 
over and above replacing their own 
value, they occasion the annual reproduction 
of this neat produce
The ground expenses, as they are called
or what the landlord lays out upon the improvement 
of his land, are, in this system, 
too, honoured with the appellation of productive 
expenses. Till the whole of those expenses
together with the ordinary profits of 
stock, have been completely repaid to him by 
the advanced rent which he gets from his 
land, that advanced rent ought to be regarded 
as sacred and inviolable, both by the 
church and by the king; ought to be subject 
neither to tithe nor to taxation. If it is otherwise, 
by discouraging the improvement of 
land, the church discourages the future increase 
of her own tithes, and the king the future 
increase of his own taxes. As in a well 
ordered state of things, therefore, those ground 
expenses, over and above reproducing in the 
completest manner their own value, occasion 
likewise, after a certain time, a reproduction 
of neat produce, they are in this system 
considered as productive expenses
The ground expenses of the landlord, however, 
together with the original and the annual 
expenses of the farmer, are the only 
three sorts of expenses which in this system 
are considered as productive. All other expenses
and all other orders of people, even 
those who, in the common apprehensions of 
men, are regarded as the most productive
are, in this account of things, represented as 
altogether barren and unproductive
Artificers and manufacturers, in particular, 
whose industry, in the common apprehensions 
of men, increases so much the value of the 
rude produce of land, are in this system represented 
as a class of people altogether 
barren and unproductive. Their labour, it is 
said, replaces only the stock which employs 
them, together with its ordinary profits
That stock consists in the materials, tools
and wages, advanced to them by their employer
and is the fund destined for their 
employment and maintenance. Its profits 
are the fund destined for the maintenance of 
their employer. Their employer, as he advances 
to them the stock of materials, tools
and wages, necessary for their employment
so he advances to himself what is necessary 
for his own maintenance; and this maintenance 
he generally proportions to the profit 
which he expects to make by the price of their 
work. Unless its price repays to him the 
maintenance which he advances to himself, as 
well as the materials, tools, and wages, which 
he advances to his workmen, it evidently does 
not repay to him the whole expense which he 
lays out upon it. The profits of manufacturing 
stock, therefore, are not, like the rent 
of land, a neat produce which remains after 
completely repaying the whole expense which 
must be laid out in order to obtain them. 
The stock of the farmer yields him a profit
as well as that of the master manufacturer
and it yields a rent likewise to another person
which that of the master manufacturer does 
not. The expense, therefore, laid out in employing 
and maintaining artificers and manufacturers
does no more than continue, if one 
may say so, the existence of its own value, 
and does not produce any new value. It is, 
therefore, altogether a barren and unproductive 
expense. The expense, on the contrary
laid out in employing farmers and country 
labourers, over and above continuing the existence 
of its own value, produces a new value