He likewise forfeits to the king all his lands, 
goods, and chattels; is declared an alien in 
every respect; and is put out of the king's 
It is unnecessary, I imagine, to observe how 
contrary such regulations are to the boasted 
liberty of the subject, of which we affect to 
be so very jealous; but which, in this case, is 
so plainly sacrificed to the futile interests of 
our merchants and manufacturers
The laudable motive of all these regulations
is to extend our own manufactures, not 
by their own improvement, but by the depression 
of those of all our neighbours, and 
by putting an end, as much as possible, to 
the troublesome competition of such odious 
and disagreeable rivals. Our master manufacturers 
think it reasonable that they themselves 
should have the monopoly of the ingenuity 
of all their countrymen. Though by 
restraining, in some trades, the number of 
apprentices which can be employed at one 
time, and by imposing the necessity of a long 
apprenticeship in all trades, they endeavour, 
all of them, to confine the knowledge of their 
respective employments to as small a number 
as possible; they are unwilling, however, that 
any part of this small number should go abroad 
to instruct foreigners
Consumption is the sole end and purpose 
of all production; and the interest of the producer 
ought to be attended to, only so far as 
it may be necessary for promoting that of the 
The maxim is so perfectly self-evident, that 
it would be absurd to attempt to prove it. 
But in the mercantile system, the interest of 
the consumer is almost constantly sacrificed 
to that of the producer; and it seems to consider 
production, and not consumption, as 
the ultimate end and object of all industry 
and commerce. 
In the restraints upon the importation of 
all foreign commodities which can come into 
competition with those of our own growth or 
manufacture, the interest of the home consumer 
is evidently sacrificed to that of the 
producer. It is altogether for the benefit of 
the latter, that the former is obliged to pay 
that enhancement of price which this monopoly 
almost always occasions
It is altogether for the benefit of the producer
that bounties are granted upon the 
exportation of some of his productions. The 
home consumer is obliged to pay, first, the 
tax which is necessary for paying the bounty; 
and, secondly, the still greater tax which necessarily 
arises from the enhancement of the 
price of the commodity in the home market. 
By the famous treaty of commerce with 
Portugal, the consumer is prevented by high 
duties from purchasing of a neighbouring 
country, a commodity which our own climate 
does not produce; but is obliged to purchase 
it of a distant country, though it is acknowledged, 
that the commodity of the distant 
country is of a worse quality than that of the 
near one. The home consumer is obliged to 
submit to this inconvenience, in order that 
the producer may import into the distant 
country some of his productions, upon more 
advantageous terms than he otherwise would 
have been allowed to do. The consumer, too, 
is obliged to pay whatever enhancement in 
the price of those very productions this forced 
exportation may occasion in the home market
But in the system of laws which has been 
established for the management of our American 
and West Indies colonies, the interest of 
the home consumer has been sacrificed to that 
of the producer, which a more extravagant 
profusion than in all our other commercial 
regulations. A great empire has been established 
for the sole purpose of raising up a 
nation of customers, who should be obliged 
to buy, from the shops of our different producers
all the goods with which these could 
supply them. For the sake of that little enhancement 
of price which this monopoly 
might afford our producers, the home consumers 
have been burdened with the whole 
expense of maintaining and defending that 
empire. For this purpose, and for this purpose 
only, in the last two wars, more than 
two hundred millions have been spent, and a 
new debt of more than a hundred and seventy 
millions has been contracted, over and above 
all that had been expended for the same 
purpose in former wars. The interest of 
this debt alone is not only greater than the 
whole extraordinary profit which, it never 
could be pretended, was made by the monopoly 
of the colony trade, but than the whole 
value of that trade, or than the whole value 
of the goods which, at an average, have been 
annually exported to the colonies. 
It cannot be very difficult to determine who 
have been the contrivers of this whole mercantile 
system; not the consumers, we may 
believe, whose interest has been entirely neglected; 
but the producers, whose interest 
has been so carefully attended to; and among 
this latter class, our merchants and manufacturers 
have been by far the principal architects
In the mercantile regulations, which 
have been taken notice of in this chapter, the 
interest of our manufacturers has been most 
peculiarly attended to; and the interest, not 
so much of the consumers, as that of some 
other sets of producers, has been sacrificed 
to it.