sufficiently discourage that exportation. Their 
avidity, however, upon this, as well as upon 
many other occasions, disappointed itself of its 
object. This enormous duty presented such a 
temptation to smuggling, that great quantities 
of this commodity were clandestinely exported
probably to all the manufacturing 
countries of Europe, but particularly to Holland, 
not only from Great Britain, but from 
Africa. Upon this account, by the 14th 
Geo. III. chap. 10, this duty upon exportation 
was reduced to five shillings the hundred 
In the book of rates, according to which 
the old subsidy was levied, beaver skins were 
estimated at six shillings and eight pence a-piece
and the different subsidies and imposts 
which, before the year 1722, had been laid 
upon their importation, amounted to one-fifth 
part of the rate, or to sixteen pence upon 
each skin; all of which, except half the old 
subsidy, amounting only to twopence, was 
drawn back upon exportation. This duty, upon 
the importation of so important a material 
of manufacture, had been thought too high; 
and, in the year 1722, the rate was reduced 
to two shillings and sixpence, which reduced 
the duty upon importation to sixpence, and 
of this only one-half was to be drawn back 
upon exportation. The same successful war 
put the country most productive of beaver under 
the dominion of Great Britain; and beaver 
skins being among the enumerated commodities
the exportation from America was 
consequently confined to the market of Great 
Britain. Our manufacturers soon bethought 
themselves of the advantage which they might 
make of this circumstance; and in the year 
1764, the duty upon the importation of beaver 
skin was reduced to one penny, but the 
duty upon exportation was raised to sevenpence 
each skin, without any drawback of the 
duty upon importation. By the same law, a 
duty of eighteen pence the pound was imposed 
upon the exportation of beaver wool or 
woumbs, without making any alteration in the 
duty upon the importation of that commodity
which, when imported by British, and in British 
shipping, amounted at that time to between 
fourpence and fivepence the piece
Coals may be considered both as a material 
of manufacture, and as an instrument of trade
Heavy duties, accordingly, have been imposed 
upon their exportation, amounting at present 
(1783) to more than five shillings the ton, or 
more than fifteen shillings the chaldron, Newcastle 
measure; which is, in most cases, more 
than the original value of the commodity at 
the coal-pit, or even at the shipping port for 
The exportation, however, of the instruments 
of trade, properly so called, is commonly 
restrained, not by high duties, but by 
absolute prohibitions. Thus, by the 7th and 
8th of William III. chap. 20, sect. 8, the exportation 
of frames or engines for knitting 
gloves or stockings, is prohibited, under the 
penalty, not only of the forfeiture of such 
frames or engines, so exported, or attempted 
to be exported, but of forty pounds, one half 
to the king, the other to the person who shall 
inform or sue for the same. In the same 
manner, by the 14th Geo. III. chap. 71, the 
exportation to foreign parts, of any utensils 
made use of in the cotton, linen, woollen, and 
silk manufacturers, is prohibited under the penalty
not only of the forfeiture of such utensils, 
but of two hundred pounds, to be paid 
by the person who shall offend in this manner
and likewise of two hundred pounds, to 
be paid by the master of the ship, who shall 
knowingly suffer such utensils to be loaded on 
board his ship
When such heavy penalties were imposed 
upon the exportation of the dead instruments 
of trade, it could not well be expected that 
the living instrument, the artificer, should be 
allowed to go free. Accordingly, by the 5th 
Geo. I. chap. 27, the person who shall be 
convicted of enticing any artificer, of or in 
any of the manufactures of Great Britain, to 
go into any foreign parts, in order to practise 
or teach his trade, is liable, for the first offence
to be fined in any sum not exceeding one 
hundred pounds, and to three months imprisonment
and until the fine shall be paid; and 
for the second offence, to be fined in any sum, 
at the discretion of the court, and to imprisonment 
for twelve months, and until the fine 
shall be paid. By the 23d Geo. II. chap. 13, 
this penalty is increased, for the first offence
to five hundred pounds for every artificer so 
enticed, and to twelve months imprisonment
and until the fine shall be paid; and for the 
second offence, to one thousand pounds, and 
to two years imprisonment, and until the fine 
shall be paid
By the former of these two statutes, upon 
proof that any person has been enticing any 
artificer, or that any artificer has promised or 
contracted to go into foreign parts, for the 
purposes aforesaid, such artificer may be obliged 
to give security, at the discretion of the 
court, that he shall not go beyond the seas
and may be committed to prison until he give 
such security
If any artificer has gone beyond the seas
and is exercising or teaching his trade in any 
foreign country, upon warning being given to 
him by any of his majesty's ministers or consuls 
abroad, or by one of his majesty's secretaries 
of state, for the time being, if he does 
not, within six months after such warning, return 
into this realm, and from henceforth 
abide and inhabit continually within the same, 
he is from thenceforth declared incapable of 
taking any legacy devised to him within this 
kingdom, or of being executor or administrator 
to any person, or of taking any lands within 
this kingdom, by descent, devise, or purchase