the doing of it. Woollen yarn and worsted 
are prohibited to be exported, under the 
same penalties as wool. Even white cloths 
are subject to a duty upon exportation; and 
our dyers have so far obtained a monopoly 
against our clothiers. Our clothiers would 
probably have been able to defend themselves 
against it; but it happens that the greater 
part of our principal clothiers are themselves 
likewise dyers. Watch-cases, clock-cases, and 
dial-plates for clocks and watches, have been 
prohibited to be exported. Our clock-makers 
and watch-makers are, it seems, unwilling 
that the price of this sort of workmanship 
should be raised upon them by the competition 
of foreigners
By some old statutes of Edward III. Henry 
VIII. and Edward VI. the exportation of 
all metals was prohibited. Lead and tin were 
alone excepted, probably on account of the 
great abundance of those metals; in the exportation 
of which a considerable part of the 
trade of the kingdom in those days consisted. 
For the encouragement of the mining trade
the 5th of William and Mary, chap. 17, exempted 
from this prohibition iron, copper, and 
mundic metal made from British ore. The 
exportation of all sorts of copper bars, foreign 
as well as British, was afterwards permitted 
by the 9th and 10th of William III. chap 26. 
The exportation of unmanufactured brass, of 
what is called gun-metal, bell-metal, and 
shroff-metal, still continues to be prohibited
Brass manufactures of all sorts may be exported 
duty free
The exportation of the materials of manufacture
where it is not altogether prohibited
is, in many cases, subjected to considerable 
By the 8th Geo. I. chap. 15, the exportation 
of all goods, the produce or manufacture 
of Great Britain, upon which any duties had 
been imposed by former statutes, was rendered 
duty free. The following goods, however, 
were excepted: alum, lead, lead-ore, tin
tanned leather, copperas, coals, wool, cards
white woolen cloths, lapis calaminaris, skins 
of all sorts, glue, coney hair or wool, hares 
wool, hair of all sorts, horses, and litharge of 
lead. If you expect horses, all these are either 
materials of manufacture, or incomplete manufactures 
(which may be considered as materials 
for still further manufacture), or instruments 
of trade. This statute leaves them 
subject to all the old duties which had ever 
been imposed upon them, the old subsidy
and one per cent. outwards
By the same statute, a great number of foreign 
drugs for dyers use are exempted from 
all duties upon importation. Each of them, 
however, is afterwards subjected to a certain 
duty, not indeed a very heavy one, upon exportation
Our dyers, it seems, while they 
thought it for their interest to encourage the 
importation of those drugs, by an exemption 
from all duties, thought it likewise for their 
own interest to throw some small discouragement 
upon their exportation. The avidity
however, which suggested this notable piece 
of mercantile ingenuity, most probably disappointed 
itself of its object. It necessarily 
taught the importers to be more careful than 
they might otherwise have been, that their 
importation should not exceed what was necessary 
for the supply of the home market
The home market was at all times likely to 
be more scantily supplied; the commodities 
were at all times likely to be somewhat dearer 
there than they would have been, had the exportation 
been rendered as free as the importation
By the above-mentioned statute, gum senega
or gum arabic, being among the enumerated 
dyeing drugs, might be imported duty 
free. They were subjected, indeed, to a small 
poundage duty, amounting only to threepence 
in the hundred weight, upon their re-exportation
France enjoyed, at that time, an exclusive 
trade to the country most productive 
of those drugs, that which lies in the neighbourhood 
of the Senegal; and the British 
market could not easily be supplied by the 
immediate importation of them from the place 
of growth. By the 25th Geo. II. therefore, 
gum senega was allowed to be imported (contrary 
to the general dispositions of the act of 
navigation) from any part of Europe. As the 
law, however, did not mean to encourage this 
species of trade, so contrary to the general 
principles of the mercantile policy of England
it imposed a duty of ten shillings the 
hundred weight upon such importation, and 
no part of this duty was to be afterwards 
drawn back upon its exportation. The successful 
war which began in 1755 gave Great 
Britain the same exclusive trade to those countries 
which France had enjoyed before. Our 
manufactures, as soon as the peace was made, 
endeavoured to avail themselves of this advantage
and to establish a monopoly in their 
own favour both against the growers and 
against the importers of this commodity. By 
the 5th Geo. III. therefore, chap. 37, the 
exportation of gum senega, from his majesty's 
dominions in Africa, was confined to Great 
Britain, and was subjected to all the same restrictions
regulations, forfeitures, and penalties
as that of the enumerated commodities 
of the British colonies in America and the 
West Indies. Its importation, indeed, was 
subjected to a small duty of sixpence the hundred 
weight, but its re-exportation was subjected 
to the enormous duty of one pound ten 
shillings the hundred weight. It was the intention 
of our manufacturers, that the whole 
produce of those countries should be imported 
into Great Britain; and in order that they 
themselves might be enabled to buy it at their 
own price, that no part of it should be exported 
again, but at such an expense as would