requires. It happens, however, that the 
goodness of the fleece depends, in great 
measure, upon the health, growth, and bulk 
of the animal: the same attention which is 
necessary for the improvement of the carcase 
is, in some respect, sufficient for that of the 
fleece. Notwithstanding the degradation of 
price, English wool is said to have been improved 
considerably during the course even 
of the present century. The improvement
might, perhaps, have been greater if the price 
had been better; but the lowness of price
though it may have obstructed, yet certainly 
it has not altogether prevented that improvement
The violence of these regulations, therefore, 
seems to have affected neither the quantity 
nor the quality of the annual produce of wool
so much as it might have been expected to do 
(though I think it probable that it may have 
affected the latter a good deal more than the 
former); and the interest of the growers of 
wool, though it must have been hurt in some 
degree, seems upon the whole, to have been 
much less hurt than could well have been 
These considerations, however, will not 
justify the absolute prohibition of the exportation 
of wool; but they will fully justify the 
imposition of a considerable tax upon that exportation
To hurt, in any degree, the interest of any 
one order of citizens, for no other purpose 
but to promote that of some other, is evidently 
contrary to that justice and equality of treatment 
which the sovereign owes to all the different 
orders of his subjects. But the prohibition 
certainly hurts, in some degree, the 
interest of the growers of wool, for no other 
purpose but to promote that of the manufacturers
Every different order of citizens is bound to 
contribute to the support of the sovereign or 
commonwealth. A tax of five, or even of ten 
shillings, upon the exportation of every tod 
of wool, would produce a very considerable 
revenue to the sovereign. It would hurt the 
interest of the growers somewhat less than 
the prohibition, because it would not probably 
lower the price of wool quite so much. It 
would afford a sufficient advantage to the 
manufacturer, because, though he might not 
buy his wool altogether so cheap as under the 
prohibition, he would still buy it at least five 
or ten shillings cheaper than any foreign 
manufacturer could buy it, besides saving the 
freight and insurance which the other would 
be obliged to pay. It is scarce possible to 
devise a tax which could produce any considerable 
revenue to the sovereign, and at the 
same time occasion so little inconveniency to 
any body
The prohibition, notwithstanding all the 
penalties which guard it, does not prevent the 
exportation of wool. It is exported, it is well 
known, in great quantities. The great difference 
between the price in the home and 
that in the foreign market, presents such a 
temptation to smuggling, that all the rigour of 
the law cannot prevent it. This illegal exportation 
is advantageous to nobody but the 
smuggler. A legal exportation, subject to a 
tax, by affording a revenue to the sovereign, 
and thereby saving the imposition of some 
other, perhaps more burdensome and inconvenient 
taxes, might prove advantageous to all 
the different subjects of the state. 
The exportation of fuller's earth, or fuller's 
clay, supposed to be necessary for preparing 
and cleansing the woollen manufactures, has 
been subjected to nearly the same penalties as 
the exportation of wool. Even tobacco-pipe 
clay, though acknowledged to be different 
from fuller's clay, yet, on account of their 
resemblance, and because fuller's clay might 
sometimes be exported as tobacco-pipe clay
has been laid under the same prohibitions and 
By the 13th and 14th of Charles II. chap
7, the exportation, not only of raw hides
but of tanned leather, except in the shape of 
boots, shoes, or slippers, was prohibited; and 
the law gave a monopoly to our boot-makers 
and shoe-makers, not only against our graziers
but against our tanners. By subsequent 
statutes, our tanners have got themselves 
exempted from this monopoly, upon 
paying a small tax of only one shilling on the 
hundred weight of tanned leather, weighing 
one hundred and twelve pounds. They have 
obtained likewise the drawback of two-thirds 
of the excise duties imposed upon their commodity, 
even when exported without further 
manufacture. All manufactures of leather 
may be exported duty free; and the exporter 
is besides entitled to the drawback of the 
whole duties of excise. Our graziers still 
continue subject to the old monopoly. Graziers
separated from one another, and dispersed 
through all the different corners of the 
country, cannot, without great difficulty
combine together for the purpose either of 
imposing monopolies upon their fellow-citizens
or of exempting themselves from such 
as may have been imposed upon them by 
other people. Manufacturers of all kinds
collected together in numerous bodies in all 
great cities, easily can. Even the horns of 
cattle are prohibited to be exported; and the 
two insignificant trades of the horner and 
comb-maker enjoy, in this respect, a monopoly 
against the graziers
Restraints, either by prohibitions, or by 
taxes, upon the exportation of goods which 
are partially, but not completely manufactured
are not peculiar to the manufacture of 
leather. As long as any thing remains to be 
done, in order to fit any commodity for immediate 
use and consumption, our manufacturers 
think that they themselves ought to