of 3s. for every pound weight is likewise incurred. 
Our woollen manufacturers, in order to 
justify their demand of such extraordinary restrictions 
and regulations, confidently asserted
that English wool was of a peculiar quality
superior to that of any other country; that 
the wool of other countries could not, without 
some mixture of it, be wrought up into any 
tolerable manufacture; that fine cloth could 
not be made without it; that England, therefore, 
if the exportation of it could be totally 
prevented, could monopolize to herself almost 
the whole woollen trade of the world; and 
thus, having no rivals, could sell at what 
price she pleased, and in a short time acquire 
the most incredible degree of wealth by the 
most advantageous balance of trade. This 
doctrine, like most other doctrines which are 
confidently asserted by any considerable number 
of people, was, and still continues to be, 
most implicitly believed by a much greater 
number: by almost all those who are either 
unacquainted with the woollen trade, or who 
have not made particular inquiries. It is, 
however, so perfectly false, that English wool 
is in any respect necessary for the making of 
fine cloth, that it is altogether unfit for it. 
Fine cloth is made altogether of Spanish 
wool. English wool, cannot be even so mixed 
with Spanish wool, as to enter into the 
composition without spoiling and degrading
in some degree, the fabric of the cloth
It has been shown in the foregoing part of 
this work, that the effect of these regulations 
has been to depress the price of English wool
not only below what it naturally would be in 
the present times, but very much below what 
it actually was in the time of Edward III. 
The price of Scotch wool, when, in consequence 
of the Union, it became subject to the 
same regulations, is said to have fallen about 
one half. It is observed by the very accurate 
and intelligent author of the Memoirs of 
Wool, the Reverend Mr. John Smith, that 
the price of the best English wool in England
is generally below what wool of a very 
inferior quality commonly sells for in the 
market of Amsterdam. To depress the price 
of this commodity below what may be called 
its natural and proper price, was the avowed 
purpose of those regulations; and there seems 
to be no doubt of their having produced the 
effect that was expected from them. 
This reduction of price, it may perhaps be 
thought, by discouraging the growing of wool
must have reduced very much the annual 
produce of that commodity, though not below 
what it formerly was, yet below what, in the 
present state of things, it would probably 
have been, had it, in consequence of an open 
and free market, been allowed to rise to the 
natural and proper price. I am, however, 
disposed to believe, that the quantity of the 
annual produce cannot have been much, 
though it may, perhaps, have been a little 
affected by these regulations. The growing 
of wool is not the chief purpose for which the 
sheep farmer employs his industry and stock. 
He expects his profit, not so much from the 
price of the fleece, as from that of the carcase
and the average or ordinary price of the latter 
must even, in many cases, make up to him 
whatever deficiency there may be in the average 
or ordinary price of the former. It has 
been observed, in the foregoing part of this 
work, that 'whatever regulations tend to sink 
the price, either of wool or of raw hides
below what it naturally would be, must, in an 
improved and cultivated country, have some 
tendency to raise the price of butcher's meat
The price, both of the great and small cattle 
which are fed on improved and cultivated 
land, must be sufficient to pay the rent which 
the landlord, and the profit which the farmer
has reason to expect from improved and cultivated 
land. If it is not, they will soon 
cease to feed them. Whatever part of this 
price, therefore, is not paid by the wool and 
the hide, must be paid by the carcase. The 
less there is paid for the one, the more must 
be paid for the other. In what manner this 
price is to be divided upon the different parts 
of the beast, is indifferent to the landlords 
and farmers, provided it is all paid to them. 
In an improved and cultivated country, therefore, 
their interest as landlords and farmers 
cannot be much affected by such regulations
though their interest as consumers may, by 
the rise in the price of provisions.' According 
to this reasoning, therefore, this degradation 
in the price of wool is not likely, in an 
improved and cultivated country, to occasion 
any diminution in the annual produce of that 
commodity; except so far as, by raising the 
price of mutton, it may somewhat diminish 
the demand for, and consequently the production 
of, that particular species of butcher's 
meat. Its effect, however, even in this way, 
it is probable, is not very considerable
But though its effect upon the quantity of 
the annual produce may not have been very 
considerable, its effect upon the quality, it 
may perhaps be thought, must necessarily 
have been very great. The degradation in 
the quality of English wool, if not below 
what it was in former times, yet below what 
it naturally would have been in the present 
state of improvement and cultivation, must 
have been, it may perhaps be supposed, very 
nearly in proportion to the degradation of 
price. As the quality depends upon the 
breed, upon the pasture, and upon the management 
and cleanliness of the sheep, during 
the whole progress of the growth of the fleece
the attention to these circumstances, it may 
naturally enough be imagined, can never be 
greater than in proportion to the recompence 
which the price of the fleece is likely to make 
for the labour and expense which that attention