this great bounty, I have been informed, was 
not likely to produce any considerable effect
The sixth bounty of this kind was that 
granted by 11th Geo. III. chap. 50, for the 
importation of pipe, hogshead, and barrel-staves 
and heading from the British plantations
It was granted for nine years, from 
1st January 1772 to the 1st January 1781. 
For the first three years, it was, for a certain 
quantity of each, to be at the rate of L.6; 
for the second three years at L.4; and for the 
third three years at L.2. 
The seventh and last bounty of this kind 
was that granted by the 19th Geo. III. chap
37, upon the importation of hemp from Ireland
It was granted in the same manner as 
that for the importation of hemp and undressed 
flax from America, for twenty-one years
from the 24th June 1779 to the 24th June 
1800. The term is divided likewise into 
three periods, of seven years each; and in 
each of those periods, the rate of the Irish 
bounty is the same with that of the American
It does not, however, like the American 
bounty, extend to the importation of undressed 
flax. It would have been too great
discouragement to the cultivation of that plant 
in Great Britain. When this last bounty was 
granted, the British and Irish legislatures 
were not in much better humour with one 
another, than the British and American had 
been before. But this boon to Ireland, it is 
to be hoped, has been granted under more 
fortunate auspices than all those to America
The same commodities, upon which we 
thus gave bounties, when imported from 
America, were subjected to considerable duties 
when imported from any other country
The interest of our American colonies was 
regarded as the same with that of the mother 
country. Their wealth was considered as our 
wealth. Whatever money was sent out to 
them, it was said, came all back to us by the 
balance of trade, and we could never become 
a farthing the poorer by any expense which we 
could lay out upon them. They were our own 
in every respect, and it was an expense laid out 
upon the improvement of our own property
and for the profitable employment of our own 
people. It is unnecessary, I apprehend, at 
present to any any thing further, in order to 
expose the folly of a system which fatal 
experience has now sufficiently exposed. Had 
our American colonies really been a part of 
Great Britain, those bounties might have 
been considered as bounties upon production
and would still have been liable to all the 
objections to which such bounties are liable, but 
to no other. 
The exportation of the materials of manufacture 
is sometimes discouraged by absolute 
prohibitions, and sometimes by high duties
Our woollen manufacturers have been more 
successful than any other class of workmen
in persuading the legislature that the prosperity 
of the nation depended upon the success 
and extension of their particular business
They have not only obtained a monopoly 
against the consumers, by an absolute 
prohibition of importing woollen cloths from 
any foreign country; but they have likewise 
obtained another monopoly against the sheep 
farmers and growers of wool, by a similar 
prohibition of the exportation of live sheep 
and wool. The severity of many of the laws 
which have been enacted for the security of 
the revenue is very justly complained of, as 
imposing heavy penalties upon actions which, 
antecedent to the statutes that declared them 
to be crimes, had always been understood to 
be innocent. But the cruellest of our revenue 
laws, I will venture to affirm, are mild 
and gentle, in comparison to some of those 
which the clamour of our merchants and 
manufacturers has extorted from the legislature
for the support of their own absurd and 
oppressive monopolies. Like the laws of 
Draco, these laws may be said to be all 
written in blood. 
By the 8th of Elizabeth, chap. 3, the exporter 
of sheep, lambs, or rams, was for the 
first offence, to forfeit all his goods for ever, 
to suffer a year's imprisonment, and then to 
have his left hand cut off on a market town
upon a market day, to be there nailed up; 
and for the second offence, to be adjudged a 
felon, and to suffer death accordingly. To 
prevent the breed of our sheep from being propagated 
in foreign countries, seems to have 
been the object of this law. By the 13th and 
14th of Charles II. chap. 18, the exportation 
of wool was made felony, and the exporter 
subjected to the same penalties and forfeitures 
as a felon
For the honour of the national humanity
it is to be hoped that neither of these statutes 
was ever executed. The first of them, however, 
so far as I know, has never been directly 
repealed, and serjeant Hawkins seems to 
consider it as still in force. It may, however, 
perhaps be considered as virtually repealed by 
the 12th of Charles II. chap. 32, sect. 3, 
which, without expressly taking away the penalties 
imposed by former statutes, imposes 
a new penalty, viz. that of 20s. for every 
sheep exported, or attempted to be exported
together with the forfeiture of the sheep, and 
of the owner's share of the sheep. The second 
of them was expressly repealed by the 
7th and 8th of William III. chap. 28, sect. 
4, by which it is declared that 'Whereas the 
statute of the 13th and 14th of king Charles 
II. made against the exportation of wool
among other things in the said act mentioned
doth enact the same to be deemed felony, by 
the severity of which penalty the prosecution 
of offenders hath not been so effectually put 
in execution; be it therefore enacted, by the