of the weavers, that our great master manufactures 
make their profits. As it is their interest 
to sell the complete manufacture as dear, so it 
is to buy the materials as cheap as possible. By 
extorting from the legislature bounties upon 
the exportation of their own linen, high duties 
upon the importation of all foreign linen
and a total prohibition of the home consumption 
of some sorts of French linen, they endeavour 
to sell their own goods as dear as 
possible. By encouraging the importation of 
foreign linen yarn, and thereby bringing it 
into competition with that which is made by 
our own people, they endeavour to buy the 
work of the poor spinners as cheap as possible. 
They are as intent to keep down the 
wages of their own weavers, as the earnings 
of the poor spinners; and it is by no means for 
the benefit of the workmen that they endeavour 
either to raise the price of the complete 
work, or to lower that of the rude materials
It is the industry which is carried on for the benefit 
of the rich and the powerful, that is principally 
encouraged by our mercantile system. 
That which is carried on for the benefit of the 
poor and the indigent is too often either neglected 
or oppressed. 
Both the bounty upon the exportation of 
linen, and the exemption from the duty upon 
the importation of foreign yarn, which were 
granted only for fifteen years, but continued 
by two different prolongations, expire with the 
end of the session of parliament which shall 
immediately follow the 24th of June 1786. 
The encouragement given to the importation 
of the materials of manufacture by bounties
has been principally confined to such as 
were imported from our American plantations
The first bounties of this kind were those 
granted about the beginning of the present 
century, upon the importation of naval stores 
from America. Under this denomination 
were comprehended timber fit for masts
yards, and bowsprits; hemp, tar, pitch, and 
turpentine. The bounty, however, of L.1 the 
ton upon masting-timber, and that of L.6 the 
ton upon hemp, were extended to such as 
should be imported into England from Scotland
Both these bounties continued, without 
any variation, at the same rate, till they 
were severally allowed to expire; that upon 
hemp on the 1st of January 1741, and that 
upon masting-timber at the end of the session 
of parliament immediately following the 24th 
June 1781. 
The bounties upon the importation of tar
pitch, and turpentine, underwent, during their 
continuance, several alterations. Originally
that upon tar was L.4 the ton; that upon pitch 
the same; and that upon turpentine L.3 the 
ton. The bounty of L.4 the ton upon tar was 
afterwards confined to such as had been prepared 
in a particular manner; this upon other 
good, clean, and merchantable tar was reduced 
to L.2, 4s. the ton. The bounty upon pitch 
was likewise reduced to L.1, and that upon 
turpentine to L.1 : 10s. the ton
The second bounty upon the importation 
of any of the materials of manufacture, according 
to the order of time, was that granted 
by the 21st Geo. II. chap. 30, upon the importation 
of indigo from the British plantations
When the plantation indigo was worth 
three-fourths of the price of the best French 
indigo, it was, by this act, entitled to a bounty 
of 6d. the pound. This bounty, which, 
like most others was granted only for a limited 
time, was continued by several prolongations
but was reduced to 4d. the pound
It was allowed to expire with the end of the 
session of parliament which followed the 25th 
March 1781. 
The third bounty of this kind was that 
granted (much about the time that we were 
beginning sometimes to court, and sometimes 
to quarrel with our American colonies), by 
the 4th Geo. III. chap. 26, upon the importation 
of hemp, or undressed flax, from the 
British plantations. This bounty was granted 
for twenty-one years, from the 24th June 
1764 to the 24th June 1785. For the first 
seven years, it was to be at the rate of L.8 the 
ton; for the second at L.6; and for the third 
at L.4. It was not extended to Scotland, of 
which the climate (although hemp is sometimes 
times raised there in small quantities, and of an 
inferior quality) is not very fit for that produce
Such a bounty upon the importation 
of Scotch flax in England would have been 
too great a discouragement to the native produce 
of the southern part of the united kingdom. 
The fourth bounty of this kind was that 
granted by the 5th Geo. III. chap. 45, upon 
the importation of wood from America. It 
was granted for nine years from the 1st January 
1766 to the 1st January 1775. During 
the first three years, it was to be for every 
hundred-and-twenty good deals, at the rate of 
L.1, and for every load containing fifty cubic 
feet of other square timber, at the rate of 12s. 
For the second three years, it was for deals
to be at the rate of 15s., and for other squared 
timber at the rate of 8s.; and for the third 
three years, it was for deals, to be at the rate 
of 10s.; and for every other squared timber 
at the rate of 5s. 
The fifth bounty of this kind was that 
granted by the 9th Geo. III. chap. 38, upon 
the importation of raw silk from the British 
plantations. It was granted for twenty-one 
years, from the 1st January 1770, to the 1st 
January 1791. For the first seven years, it 
was to be at the rate of L.25 for every hundred 
pounds value; for the second, at L.20; 
and for the third, at L.15. The management 
of the silk-worm, and the preparation 
of silk, requires so much hand-labour, and 
labour is so very dear in America, that even