of all other countries dearer in the colonies
it cramps in the same manner the industry 
of all other colonies, and both the enjoyments 
and the industry of the colonies. It is 
a clog which, for the supposed benefit of some 
particular countries, embarrasses the pleasures 
and encumbers the industry of all other countries
but of the colonies more than of any 
other. It not only excludes as much as possible 
all other countries from one particular 
market, but it confines as much as possible 
the colonies to one particular market; and 
the difference is very great between being 
excluded from one particular market when all 
others are open, and being confined to one 
particular market when all others are shut up. 
The surplus produce of the colonies, however, 
is the original source of all that increase of 
enjoyments and industry which Europe derives 
from the discovery and colonization of 
America, and the exclusive trade of the mother 
countries tends to render this source 
much less abundant than it otherwise would 
The particular advantages which each colonizing 
country derives from the colonies which 
particularly belong to it, are of two different 
kinds; first, those common advantages which 
every empire derives from the provinces subject 
to its dominion; and, secondly, those peculiar 
advantages which are supposed to result 
from provinces of so very peculiar a nature 
as the European colonies of America
The common advantages which every empire 
derives from the provinces subject to its 
dominion consist, first, in the military force 
which they furnish for its defence; and, secondly, 
in the revenue which they furnish for 
the support of its civil government. The Roman 
colonies furnished occasionally both the 
one and the other. The Greek colonies sometimes 
furnished a military force, but seldom 
any revenue. They seldom acknowledged 
themselves subject to the dominion of the mother 
city. They were generally her allies in 
war, but very seldom her subjects in peace
The European colonies of America have 
never yet furnished any military force for the 
defence of the mother country. The military 
force has never yet been sufficient for their 
own defence; and in the different wars in 
which the mother countries have been engaged, 
the defence of their colonies has generally occasioned 
a very considerable distraction of the 
military force of those countries. In this respect
therefore, all the European colonies 
have, without exception, been a cause rather 
of weakness than of strength to their respective 
mother countries
The colonies of Spain and Portugal only 
have contributed any revenue towards the defence 
of the mother country, or the support 
of her civil government. The taxes which 
have been levied upon those of other European 
nations, upon those of England in particular, 
have seldom been equal to the expense 
laid out upon them in time of peace
and never sufficient to defray that which they 
occasioned in time of war. Such colonies
therefore, have been a source of expense, and 
not of revenue, to their respective mother 
The advantages of such colonies to their 
respective mother countries, consist altogether 
in those peculiar advantages which are supposed 
to result from provinces of so very peculiar 
a nature as the European colonies of 
America; and the exclusive trade, it is acknowledged
is the sole source of all those peculiar 
In consequence of this exclusive trade, all 
that part of the surplus produce of the English 
colonies, for example, which consists in 
what are called enumerated commodities, can 
be sent to no other country but England
Other countries must afterwards buy it of 
her. It must be cheaper, therefore, in England 
than it can be in any other country, and 
must contribute more to increase the enjoyments 
of England than those of any other 
country. It must likewise contribute more 
to encourage her industry. For all those parts 
of her own surplus produce which England 
exchanges for those enumerated commodities
she must get a better price than any other 
countries can get for the like parts of theirs, 
when they exchange them for the same commodities. 
The manufactures of England, for 
example, will purchase a greater quantity of 
the sugar and tobacco of her own colonies 
than the like manufactures of other countries 
can purchase of that sugar and tobacco. So 
far, therefore, as the manufactures of England 
and those of other countries are both to 
be exchanged for the sugar and tobacco of the 
English colonies, this superiority of price 
gives an encouragement to the former beyond 
what the latter can, in these circumstances
enjoy. The exclusive trade of the colonies
therefore, as it diminishes, or at least keeps 
down below what they would otherwise rise 
to, both the enjoyments and the industry of 
the countries which do not possess it, so it 
gives an evident advantage to the countries 
which do possess it over those other countries
This advantage, however, will, perhaps, be 
found to be rather what may be called a relative 
than an absolute advantage, and to give 
a superiority to the country which enjoys it, 
rather by depressing the industry and produce 
of other countries, than by raising those 
of that particular country above what they 
would naturally rise to in the case of a free 
The tobacco of Maryland and Virginia, for 
example, by means of the monopoly which 
England enjoys of it, certainly comes cheaper 
to England than it can do to France, to whom 
England commonly sells a considerable part