had authority enough to protect the slave, much 
less to punish the master. 
The stock, it is to be observed, which has 
improved the sugar colonies of France, particularly 
the great colony of St Domingo, has 
been raised almost entirely from the gradual 
improvement and cultivation of those colonies
It has been almost altogether the produce 
of the soil and of the industry of the colonists
or, what comes to the same thing, the 
price of that produce, gradually accumulated 
by good management, and employed in raising 
a still greater produce. But the stock 
which has improved and cultivated the sugar 
colonies of England, has, a great part of it, 
been sent out from England, and has by no 
means been altogether the produce of the soil 
and industry of the colonists. The prosperity 
of the English sugar colonies has been in a 
great measure owing to the great riches of 
England, of which a part has overflowed, if 
one may say so, upon these colonies. But 
the prosperity of the sugar colonies of France 
has been entirely owing to the good conduct 
of the colonists, which must therefore have 
had some superiority over that of the English
and this superiority has been remarked 
in nothing so much as in the good management 
of their slaves
Such have been the general outlines of the 
policy of the different European nations with 
regard to their colonies
The policy of Europe, therefore, has very 
little to boast of, either in the original establishment
or, so far as concerns their internal 
government, in the subsequent prosperity of 
the colonies of America
Folly and injustice seem to have been the 
principles which presided over and directed 
the first project of establishing those colonies
the folly of hunting after gold and silver 
mines, and the injustice of coveting the possession 
of a country whose harmless natives
far from having ever injured the people of 
Europe, had received the first adventurers 
with every mark of kindness and hospitality. 
The adventurers, indeed, who formed some 
of the latter establishments, joined to the chimerical 
project of finding gold and silver 
mines, other motives more reasonable and 
more laudable; but even these motives do 
very little honour to the policy of Europe
The English puritans, restrained at home, 
fled for freedom to America, and established 
there the four governments of New England
The English catholics, treated with much 
greater injustice, established that of Maryland
the quakers, that of Pennsylvania. The 
Portuguese Jews, persecuted by the inquisition, 
stript of their fortunes, and banished to 
Brazil, introduced, by their example, some 
sort of order and industry among the transported 
felons and strumpets by whom that colony 
was originally peopled, and taught them 
the culture of the sugar-cane. Upon all these 
different occasions, it was not the wisdom and 
policy, but the disorder and injustice of the 
European governments, which peopled and 
cultivated America
In effectuating some of the most important 
of these establishments, the different governments 
of Europe had as little merit as in projecting 
them. The conquest of Mexico was 
the project, not of the council of Spain, but 
of a governor of Cuba; and it was effectuated 
by the spirit of the bold adventurer to whom 
it was entrusted, in spite of every thing which 
that governor, who soon repented of having 
trusted such a person, could do to thwart it. 
The conquerors of Chili and Peru, and of almost 
all the other Spanish settlements upon 
the continent of America, carried out with 
them no other public encouragement, but a 
general permission to make settlements and 
conquests in the name of the king of Spain
Those adventures were all at the private risk 
and expense of the adventurers. The government 
of Spain contributed scarce any thing 
to any of them. That of England contributed 
as little towards effectuating the establishment 
of some of its most important colonies 
in North America
When those establishments were effectuated
and had become so considerable as to attract 
the attention of the mother country, the first 
regulations which she made with regard to 
them, had always in view to secure to herself 
the monopoly of their commerce; to confine 
their market, and to enlarge her own at their 
expense, and, consequently, rather to damp and 
discourage, than to quicken and forward the 
course of their prosperity. In the different 
ways in which this monopoly has been exercised, 
consists one of the most essential differences 
in the policy of the different European 
nations with regard to their colonies. The best 
of them all, that of England, is only somewhat 
less illiberal and oppressive than that of any of 
the rest
In what way, therefore, has the policy of 
Europe contributed either to the first establishment
or to the present grandeur of the 
colonies of America? In one way, and in one 
way only, it has contributed a good deal
Magna virĂ»m mater! It bred and formed the 
men who were capable of achieving such great 
actions, and of laying the foundation of so 
great an empire; and there is no other quarter 
of the world, of which the policy is capable 
of forming, or has ever actually, and in 
fact, formed such men. The colonies owe to 
the policy of Europe the education and great 
views of their active and enterprising founders
and some of the greatest and most important 
of them, so far as concerns their internal 
government, owe to it scarce any thing