rice, and of all salt provisions, has, in the ordinary 
state of the law, been prohibited
The non-enumerated commodities could 
originally be exported to all parts of the world. 
Lumber and rice having been once put into 
the enumeration, when they were afterwards 
taken out of it, were confined, as to the European 
market, to the countries that lie south 
of Cape Finisterre. By the 6th of George 
III. c. 52, all non-enumerated commodities 
were subjected to the like restriction. The 
parts of Europe which lie south of Cape Finisterre 
are not manufacturing countries, and 
we are less jealous of the colony ships carrying 
home from them any manufactures which 
could interfere with our own. 
The enumerated commodities are of two 
sorts; first, such as are either the peculiar 
produce of America, or as cannot be produced
or at least are not produced in the mother 
country. Of this kind are molasses, coffee
cocoa-nuts, tobacco, pimento, ginger, whale-fins
raw silk, cotton, wool, beaver, and other 
peltry of America, indigo, fustick, and other 
dyeing woods; secondly, such as are not the 
peculiar produce of America, but which are, 
and may be produced in the mother country, 
though not in such quantities as to supply the 
greater part of her demand, which is principally 
supplied from foreign countries. Of 
this kind are all naval stores, masts, yards, 
and bowsprits, tar, pitch, and turpentine, pig 
and bar iron, copper ore, hides and skins, pot 
and pearl ashes. The largest importation of 
commodities of the first kind could not discourage 
the growth, or interfere with the sale
of any part of the produce of the mother 
country. By confining them to the home market
our merchants, it was expected, would 
not only be enabled to buy them cheaper in 
the plantations, and consequently to sell them 
with a better profit at home, but to establish 
between the plantations and foreign countries 
an advantageous carrying trade, of which 
Great Britain was necessarily to be the centre 
or emporium, as the European country into 
which those commodities were first to be imported
The importation of commodities of 
the second kind might be so managed too, it 
was supposed, as to interfere, not with the 
sale of those of the same kind which were produced 
at home, but with that of those which 
were imported from foreign countries; because, 
by means of proper duties, they might be rendered 
always somewhat dearer than the former, 
and yet a good deal cheaper than the latter. 
By confining such commodities to the 
home market, therefore, it was proposed to 
discourage the produce, not of Great Britain
but of some foreign countries with which the 
balance of trade was believed to be unfavourable 
to Great Britain
The prohibition of exporting from the colonies 
to any other country but Great Britain
masts, yards, and bowsprits, tar, pitch, and 
turpentine, naturally tended to lower the price 
of timber in the colonies, and consequently to 
increase the expense of clearing their lands, 
the principal obstacle to their improvement. 
But about the beginning of the present century
in 1703, the pitch and tar company of 
Sweden endeavoured to raise the price of their 
commodities to Great Britain, by prohibiting 
their exportation, except in their own ships
at their own price, and in such quantities as 
they thought proper. In order to counteract 
this notable piece of mercantile policy, and to 
render herself as much as possible independent, 
not only of Sweden, but of all the other 
northern powers, Great Britain gave a bounty 
upon the importation of naval stores from 
America; and the effect of this bounty was 
to raise the price of timber in America much 
more than the confinement to the home market 
could lower it; and as both regulations 
were enacted at the same time, their joint effect 
was rather to encourage than to discourage 
the clearing of land in America
Though pig and bar iron, too, have been 
put among the enumerated commodities, yet 
as, when imported from America, they are 
exempted from considerable duties to which 
they are subject when imported from any other 
country, the one part of the regulation contributes 
more to encourage the erection of furnaces 
in America than the other to discourage 
it. There is no manufacture which occasions 
so great a consumption of wood as a furnace
or which can contribute so much to the clearing 
of a country overgrown with it. 
The tendency of some of these regulations 
to raise the value of timber in America, and 
thereby to facilitate the clearing of the land
was neither, perhaps, intended nor understood 
by the legislature. Though their beneficial 
effects, however, have been in this respect accidental, 
they have not upon that account been 
less real
The most perfect freedom of trade is permitted 
between the British colonies of America 
and the West Indies, both in the enumerated 
and in the non-enumerated commodities. 
Those colonies are now become so populous 
and thriving, that each of them finds in some 
of the others a great and extensive market 
for every part of its produce. All of them 
taken together, they make a great internal 
market for the produce of one another. 
The liberality of England, however, towards 
the trade of her colonies, has been confined 
chiefly to what concerns the market for their 
produce, either in its rude state, or in what 
may be called the very first stage of manufacture
The more advanced or more refined 
manufactures, even of the colony produce, the 
merchants and manufacturers of Great Britain 
chuse to reserve to themselves, and have 
prevailed upon the legislature to prevent their