First, The engrossing of uncultivated land
though it has by no means been prevented altogether, 
has been more restrained in the English 
colonies than in any other. The colony 
law, which imposes upon every proprietor the 
obligation of improving and cultivating, within 
a limited time, a certain proportion of his 
lands, and which, in case of failure, declares 
those neglected lands grantable to any other 
person; though it has not perhaps been very 
strictly executed, has, however, had some effect
Secondly, In Pennsylvania there is no right 
of primogeniture, and lands, like moveables
are divided equally among all the children of 
the family. In three of the provinces of New 
England, the oldest has only a double share, 
as in the Mosaical law. Though in those 
provinces, therefore, too great a quantity of 
land should sometimes be engrossed by a particular 
individual, it is likely, in the course of 
a generation or two, to be sufficiently divided 
again. In the other English colonies, indeed, 
the right of primogeniture takes place, as in 
the law of England: But in all the English 
colonies, the tenure of the lands, which are all 
held by free soccage, facilitates alienation; and 
the grantee of an extensive tract of land generally 
finds it for his interest to alienate, as fast 
as he can, the greater part of it, reserving only 
a small quit-rent. In the Spanish and Portuguese 
colonies, what is called the right of 
majorazzo takes place in the succession of all 
those great estates to which any title of honour 
is annexed. Such estates go all to one 
person, and are in effect entailed and unalienable. 
The French colonies, indeed, are subject 
to the custom of Paris, which, in the inheritance 
of land, is much more favourable to 
the younger children than the law of England
But, in the French colonies, if any part of an 
estate, held by the noble tenure of chivalry 
and homage, is alienated, it is, for a limited 
time, subject to the right of redemption, either 
by the heir of the superior, or by the heir of 
the family; and all the largest estates of the 
country are held by such noble tenures, which 
necessarily embarrass alienation. But, in a 
new colony, a great uncultivated estate is likely 
to be much more speedily divided by alienation 
than by succession. The plenty and 
cheapness of good land, it has already been 
observed, are the principal causes of the rapid 
prosperity of new colonies. The engrossing 
of land, in effect, destroys this plenty and 
cheapness. The engrossing of uncultivated 
land, besides, is the greatest obstruction to its 
improvement; but the labour that is employed 
in the improvement and cultivation of land 
affords the greatest and most valuable produce 
to the society. The produce of labour, in this 
case, pays not only its own wages and the 
profit of the stock which employs it, but the 
rent of the land too upon which it is employed
The labour of the English colonies
therefore, being more employed in the improvement 
and cultivation of land, is likely to 
afford a greater and more valuable produce 
than that of any of the other three nations, 
which, by the engrossing of land, is more or 
less diverted towards other employments. 
Thirdly, The labour of the English colonists 
is not only likely to afford a greater and 
more valuable produce, but, in consequence 
of the moderation of their taxes, a greater proportion 
of this produce belongs to themselves, 
which they may store up and employ in putting 
into motion a still greater quantity of labour
The English colonists have never yet 
contributed any thing towards the defence of 
the mother country, or towards the support of 
its civil government. They themselves, on 
the contrary, have hitherto been defended almost 
entirely at the expense of the mother 
country; but the expense of fleets and armies 
is out of all proportion greater than the necessary 
expense of civil government. The expense 
of their own civil government has always 
been very moderate. It has generally 
been confined to what was necessary for paying 
competent salaries to the governor, to the 
judges, and to some other officers of police
and for maintaining a few of the must useful 
public works. The expense of the civil establishment 
of Massachusetts Bay, before the 
commencement of the present disturbances
used to be but about L.18,000 a-year; that of 
New Hampshire and Rhode Island, L.3500 
each; that of Connecticut, L.4000; that of 
New York and Pennsylvania, L.4500 each; 
that of New Jersey, L.1200; that of Virginia 
and South Carolina, L.8000 each. The civil 
establishments of Nova Scotia and Georgia 
are partly supported by an annual grant of 
parliament; but Nova Scotia pays, besides, 
about L.7000 a-year towards the public expenses 
of the colony, and Georgia about 
L.2500 a-year. All the different civil establishments 
in North America, in short, exclusive 
of those of Maryland and North Carolina
of which no exact account has been got, 
did not, before the commencement of the present 
disturbances, cost the inhabitants above 
L.64,700 a-year; an ever memorable example, 
at how small an expense three millions of 
people may not only be governed but well governed. 
The must important part of the expense 
of government, indeed, that of defence 
and protection, has constantly fallen upon the 
mother country. The ceremonial, too, of the 
civil government in the colonies, upon the reception 
of a new governor, upon the opening 
of a new assembly, &c. though sufficiently decent
is not accompanied with any expensive 
pomp or parade. Their ecclesiastical government 
is conducted upon a plan equally frugal. 
Tithes are unknown among them; and 
their clergy, who are far from being numerous
are maintained either by moderate stipends
or by the voluntary contributions of