extensive, that, with all his own industry, and 
with all the industry of other people whom he 
can get to employ, he can seldom make it 
produce the tenth part of what it is capable of 
producing. He is eager, therefore, to collect 
labourers from all quarters, and to reward 
them with the most liberal wages. But those 
liberal wages, joined to the plenty and cheapness 
of land, soon make those labourers leave 
him, in order to become landlords themselves, 
and to reward with equal liberality other labourers
who soon leave them for the same 
reason that they left their first master. The 
liberal reward of labour encourages marriage
The children, during the tender years of infancy, 
are well fed and properly taken care 
of; and when they are grown up, the value of 
their labour greatly overpays their maintenance
When arrived at maturity, the high 
price of labour, and the low price of land, enable 
them to establish themselves in the same 
manner as their fathers did before them. 
In other countries, rent and profit eat up 
wages, and the two superior orders of people 
oppress the inferior one; but in new colonies
the interest of the two superior orders obliges 
them to treat the inferior one with more generosity 
and humanity, at least where that inferior 
one is not in a state of slavery. Waste 
lands, of the greatest natural fertility, are to 
be had for a trifle. The increase of revenue 
which the proprietor, who is always the undertaker
expects from their improvement
constitutes his profit, which, in these circumstances
is commonly very great; but this 
great profit cannot be made, without employing 
the labour of other people in clearing and 
cultivating the land; and the disproportion 
between the great extent of the land and the 
small number of the people, which commonly 
takes place in new colonies, makes it difficult 
for him to get this labour. He does not, therefore, 
dispute about wages, but is willing to 
employ labour at any price. The high wages 
of labour encourage population. The cheapness 
and plenty of good land encourage improvement
and enable the proprietor to pay 
those high wages. In those wages consists 
almost the whole price of the land; and though 
they are high, considered as the wages of labour
they are low, considered as the price of 
what is so very valuable. What encourages 
the progress of population and improvement
encourages that of real wealth and greatness
The progress of many of the ancient Greek 
colonies towards wealth and greatness seems 
accordingly to have been very rapid. In the 
course of a century or two, several of them 
appear to have rivalled, and even to have surpassed
their mother cities. Syracuse and Agrigentum 
in Sicily, Tarentum and Locri in Italy
Ephesus and Miletus in Lesser Asia, appear, 
by all accounts, to have been at least 
equal to any of the cities of ancient Greece
Though posterior in their establishment, yet 
all the arts of refinement, philosophy, poetry, 
and eloquence, seem to have been cultivated 
as early, and to have been improved as highly 
in them as in any part of the mother country. 
The schools of the two oldest Greek philosophers, 
those of Thales and Pythagoras, were 
established, it is remarkable, not in ancient 
Greece, but the one in an Asiatic, the other in 
an Italian colony. All those colonies had 
established themselves in countries inhabited 
by savage and barbarous nations, who easily 
gave place to the new settlers. They had 
plenty of good land; and as they were altogether 
independent of the mother city, they were 
at liberty to manage their own affairs in the 
way that they judged was most suitable to their 
own interest
The history of the Roman colonies is by no 
means so brilliant. Some of them, indeed, 
such as Florence, have, in the course of many 
ages, and after the fall of the mother city, 
grown up to be considerable states. But the 
progress of no one of them seems ever to have 
been very rapid. They were all established in 
conquered provinces, which in most cases had 
been fully inhabited before. The quantity of 
land assigned to each colonist was seldom very 
considerable, and, as the colony was not independent, 
they were not always at liberty to 
manage their own affairs in the way that they 
judged was most suitable to their own interest
In the plenty of good land, the European 
colonies established in America and the West 
Indies resemble, and even greatly surpass, 
those of ancient Greece. In their dependency 
upon the mother state, they resemble those of 
ancient Rome; but their great distance from 
Europe has in all of them alleviated more or 
less the effects of this dependency. Their 
situation has placed them less in the view, and 
less in the power of their mother country. In 
pursuing their interest their own way, their 
conduct has upon many occasions been overlooked
either because not known or not understood 
in Europe; and upon some occasions 
it has been fairly suffered and submitted to, 
because their distance rendered it difficult to 
restrain it. Even the violent and arbitrary government 
of Spain has, upon many occasion
been obliged to recall or soften the orders which 
had been given for the government of her colonies
for fear of a general insurrection. The 
progress of all the European colonies in wealth, 
population, and improvement, has accordingly 
been very great
The crown of Spain, by its share of the gold 
and silver, derived some revenue from its colonies 
from the moment of their first establishment
It was a revenue, too, of a nature 
to excite in human avidity the most extravagant 
expectation of still greater riches. The 
Spanish colonies, therefore, from the moment 
of their first establishment, attracted very much 
the attention of their mother country; while