advantages which one country has over another 
be natural or acquired, is in this respect 
of no consequence. As long as the one country 
has those advantages, and the other wants 
them, it will always be more advantageous for 
the latter rather to buy of the former than to 
make. It is an acquired advantage only, 
which one artificer has over his neighbour, who 
exercises another trade; and yet they both 
find it more advantageous to buy of one another, 
than to make what does not belong to 
their particular trades. 
Merchants and manufacturers are the people 
who derive the greatest advantage from this 
monopoly of the home market. The prohibition 
of the importation of foreign cattle and 
of salt provisions, together with the high duties 
upon foreign corn, which in times of moderate 
plenty amount to a prohibition, are not near 
so advantageous to the graziers and farmers of 
Great Britain, as other regulations of the same 
kind are to its merchants and manufacturers
Manufactures, those of the finer kind especially, 
are more easily transported from one 
country to another than corn or cattle. It is 
in the fetching and carrying manufactures
accordingly, that foreign trade is chiefly employed
In manufactures, a very small advantage 
will enable foreigners to undersell our 
own workmen, even in the home market. It 
will require a very great one to enable them 
to do so in the rude produce of the soil. If 
the free importation of foreign manufactures 
were permitted, several of the home manufactures 
would probably suffer, and some of them 
perhaps go to ruin altogether, and a considerable 
part of the stock and industry at present 
employed in them, would be forced to find 
out some other employment. But the freest 
importation of the rude produce of the soil 
could have no such effect upon the agriculture 
of the country
If the importation of foreign cattle, for example, 
were made ever so free, so few could be 
imported, that the grazing trade of Great Britain 
could be little affected by it. Live cattle 
are, perhaps, the only commodity of which 
the transportation is more expensive by sea 
than by land. By land they carry themselves 
to market. By sea, not only the cattle, but 
their food and their water too, must be carried 
at no small expense and inconveniency. The 
short sea between Ireland and Great Britain
indeed, renders the importation of Irish cattle 
more easy. But though the free importation 
of them, which was lately permitted only for 
a limited time, were rendered perpetual, it 
could have no considerable effect upon the interest 
of the graziers of Great Britain. Those 
parts of Great Britain which border upon the 
Irish sea are all grazing countries. Irish cattle 
could never be imported for their use, but 
must be drove through those very extensive 
countries, at no small expense and inconveniency, 
before they could arrive at their proper 
market. Fat cattle could not be drove so far. 
Lean cattle, therefore, could only be imported
and such importation could interfere not 
with the interest of the feeding or fattening 
countries, to which, by reducing the price of 
lean cattle it would rather be advantageous
but with that of the breeding countries only. 
The small number of Irish cattle imported 
since their importation was permitted, together 
with the good price at which lean cattle 
still continue to sell, seem to demonstrate
that even the breeding countries of Great Britain 
are never likely to be much affected by 
the free importation of Irish cattle. The common 
people of Ireland, indeed, are said to 
have sometimes opposed with violence the exportation 
of their cattle. But if the exporters 
had found any great advantage in continuing 
the trade, they could easily, when the law was 
on their side, have conquered this mobbish opposition. 
Feeding and fattening countries, besides, 
must always be highly improved, whereas 
breeding countries are generally uncultivated
The high price of lean cattle, by augmenting 
the value of uncultivated land, is like a bounty 
against improvement. To any country 
which was highly improved throughout, it 
would be more advantageous to import its 
lean cattle than to breed them. The province 
of Holland, accordingly, is said to follow this 
maxim at present. The mountains of Scotland
Wales, and Northumberland, indeed, 
are countries not capable of much improvement
and seem destined by nature to be the 
breeding countries of Great Britain. The 
freest importation of foreign cattle could have 
no other effect than to hinder those breeding 
countries from taking advantage of the increasing 
population and improvement of the rest of 
the kingdom, from raising their price to an 
exorbitant height, and from laying a real tax 
upon all the more improved and cultivated 
parts of the country
The freest importation of salt provisions, in 
the same manner, could have as little effect upon 
the interest of the graziers of Great Britain 
as that of live cattle. Salt provisions are 
not only a very bulky commodity, but when 
compared with fresh meat they are a commodity 
both of worse quality, and, as they cost 
more labour and expense, of higher price
They could never, therefore, come into competition 
with the fresh meat, though they 
might with the salt provisions of the country
They might be used for victualling ships for 
distant voyages, and such like uses, but could 
never make any considerable part of the food 
of the people. The small quantity of salt provisions 
imported from Ireland since their importation 
was rendered free, is an experimental 
proof that our graziers have nothing to apprehend 
from it. It does not appear that the 
price of butcher's meat has ever been sensibly 
affected by it.