of the same kind. Such manufactures
therefore, are the offspring of foreign 
commerce; and such seem to have been the 
ancient manufactures of silks, velvets, and brocades
which flourished in Lucca during the 
thirteenth century. They were banished from 
thence by the tyranny of one of Machiavel's 
heroes, Castruccio Castracani. In 1810, nine 
hundred families were driven out of Lucca
of whom thirty-one retired to Venice, and offered 
to introduce there the silk manufacture.[36] 
Their offer was accepted, many privileges 
were conferred upon them, and they began 
the manufacture with three hundred workmen. 
Such, too, seem to have been the manufactures 
of fine cloths that anciently flourished 
in Flanders, and which were introduced 
into England in the beginning of the reign of 
Elizabeth, and such are the present silk manufactures 
of Lyons and Spitalfields. Manufactures 
introduced in this manner are generally 
employed upon foreign materials, being 
imitations of foreign manufactures. When 
the Venetian manufacture was first established
the materials were all brought from Sicily 
and the Levant. The more ancient manufacture 
of Lucca was likewise carried on with foreign 
materials. The cultivation of mulberry 
trees, and the breeding of silk-worms, seem 
not to have been common in the northern parts 
of Italy before the sixteenth century. Those 
arts were not introduced into France till the 
reign of Charles IX. The manufactures of 
Flanders were carried on chiefly with Spanish 
and English wool. Spanish wool was the material, 
not of the first woollen manufacture of 
England, but of the first that was fit for distant 
sale. More than one half the materials 
of the Lyons manufacture is at this day foreign 
silk; when it was first established, the 
whole, or very nearly the whole, was so. No 
part of the materials of the Spitalfields manufacture 
is ever likely to be the produce of 
England. The seat of such manufactures, as 
they are generally introduced by the scheme 
and project of a few individuals, is sometimes 
established in a maritime city, and sometimes 
in an inland town, according as their interest, 
judgment, or caprice, happen to determine. 
At other times, manufactures for distant 
sale grow up naturally, and as it were of their 
own accord, by the gradual refinement of 
those household and coarser manufactures 
which must at all times be carried on even in 
the poorest and rudest countries. Such manufactures 
are generally employed upon the 
materials which the country produces, and 
they seem frequently to have been first refined 
and improved in such inland countries as were 
not, indeed, at a very great, but at a considerable 
distance from the sea-coast, and sometimes 
even from all water carriage. An inland 
country, naturally fertile and easily cultivated
produces a great surplus of provisions 
beyond what is necessary for maintaining the 
cultivators; and on account of the expense of 
land carriage, and inconveniency of river navigation
it may frequently be difficult to send 
this surplus abroad. Abundance, therefore, 
renders provisions cheap, and encourages a 
great number of workmen to settle in the 
neighbourhood, who find that their industry 
can there procure them more of the necessaries 
and conveniences of life than in other 
places. They work up the materials of manufacture 
which the land produces, and exchange 
their finished work, or, what is the 
same thing, the price of it, for more materials 
and provisions. They give a new value to the 
surplus part of the rude produce, by saving 
the expense of carrying it to the water-side, or 
to some distant market; and they furnish the 
cultivators with something in exchange for it, 
that is either useful or agreeable to them, upon 
easier terms than they could have obtained 
it before. The cultivators get a better price 
for their surplus produce, and can purchase 
cheaper other conveniences which they have 
occasion for. They are thus both encouraged 
and enabled to increase this surplus produce 
by a further improvement and better cultivation 
of the land; and as the fertility of the 
land had given birth to the manufacture, so 
the progress of the manufacture re-acts upon 
the land, and increases still further its fertility
The manufacturers first supply the neighbourhood
and afterwards, as their work improves 
and refines, more distant markets. For 
though neither the rude produce, nor even the 
coarse manufacture, could, without the greatest 
difficulty, support the expense of a considerable 
land-carriage, the refined and improved 
manufacture easily may. In a small bulk 
it frequently contains the price of a great 
quantity of rude produce. A piece of fine 
cloth, for example which weighs only eighty 
pounds, contains in it the price, not only of 
eighty pounds weight of wool, but sometimes 
of several thousand weight of corn, the maintenance 
of the different working people, and 
of their immediate employers. The corn which 
could with difficulty have been carried abroad 
in its own shape, is in this manner virtually 
exported in that of the complete manufacture
and may easily be sent to the remotest corners 
of the world. In this manner have grown up 
naturally, and, as it were, of their own accord, 
the manufactures of Leeds, Halifax, Sheffield
Birmingham, and Wolverhampton. Such manufactures 
are the offspring of agriculture
In the modern history of Europe, their extension 
and improvement have generally been 
posterior to those which were the offspring of 
foreign commerce. England was noted for 
the manufacture of fine cloths made of Spanish 
wool, more than a century before any of those 
which now flourish in the places above mentioned