almost of a different species from themselves. 
The wealth of the burghers never failed to 
provoke their envy and indignation, and they 
plundered them upon every occasion without 
mercy or remorse. The burghers naturally 
hated and feared the lords. The king hated 
and feared them too; but though, perhaps, he 
might despise, he had no reason either to hate 
or fear the burghers. Mutual interest, therefore, 
disposed them to support the king, and 
the king to support them against the lords
They were the enemies of his enemies, and it 
was his interest to render them as secure and 
independent of those enemies as he could. 
By granting them magistrates of their own, 
the privilege of making bye-laws for their own 
government, that of building walls for their own 
defence, and that of reducing all their inhabitants 
under a sort of military discipline, he 
gave them all the means of security and independency 
of the barons which it was in his 
power to bestow. Without the establishment 
of some regular government of this kind
without some authority to compel their inhabitants 
to act according to some certain plan 
or system, no voluntary league of mutual defence 
could either have afforded them any permanent 
security, or have enabled them to give 
the king any considerable support. By granting 
them the farm of their own town in fee, 
he took away from those whom he wished to 
have for his friends, and, if one may say so, for 
his allies, all ground of jealousy and suspicion, 
that he was ever afterwards to oppress them, 
either by raising the farm-rent of their town
or by granting it to some other farmer
The princes who lived upon the worst terms 
with their barons, seem accordingly to have 
been the most liberal in grants of this kind to 
their burghs. King John of England, for 
example, appears to have been a most munificent 
benefactor to his towns.[34] Philip I. of 
France lost all authority over his barons. Towards 
the end of his reign, his son Lewis
known afterwards by the name of Lewis the 
Fat, consulted, according to Father Daniel
with the bishops of the royal demesnes, concerning 
the most proper means of restraining 
the violence of the great lords. Their advice 
consisted of two different proposals. One was 
to erect a new order of jurisdiction, by establishing 
magistrates and a town-council in every 
considerable town of his demesnes. The other 
was to form a new militia, by making the 
inhabitants of those towns, under the command 
of their own magistrates, march out upon 
proper occasions to the assistance of the 
king. It is from this period, according to 
the French antiquarians, that we are to date 
the institution of the magistrates and councils 
of cities in France. It was during the unprosperous 
reigns of the princes of the house 
of Suabia, that the greater part of the free 
towns of Germany received the first grants of 
their privileges, and that the famous Hanseatic 
league first became formidable.[35] 
The militia of the cities seems, in those 
times, not to have been inferior to that of the 
country; and as they could be more readily 
assembled upon any sudden occasion, they 
frequently had the advantage in their disputes 
with the neighbouring lords. In countries 
such as Italy or Switzerland, in which, on account 
either of their distance from the principal 
seat of government, of the natural strength 
of the country itself, or of some other reason
the sovereign came to lose the whole of his 
authority; the cities generally became independent 
republics, and conquered all the nobility 
in their neighbourhood; obliging them 
to pull down their castles in the country, and 
to live, like other peaceable inhabitants, in the 
city. This is the short history of the republic 
of Berne, as well as of several other cities in 
Switzerland. If you except Venice, for of 
that city the history is somewhat different, it 
is the history of all the considerable Italian 
republics, of which so great a number arose 
and perished between the end of the twelfth 
and the beginning of the sixteenth century
In countries such as France and England
where the authority of the sovereign, though 
frequently very low, never was destroyed altogether
the cities had no opportunity of becoming 
entirely independent. They became, 
however, so considerable, that the sovereign 
could impose no tax upon them, besides the 
stated farm-rent of the town, without their 
own consent. They were, therefore, called 
upon to send deputies to the general assembly 
of the states of the kingdom, where they might 
join with the clergy and the barons in granting
upon urgent occasions, some extraordinary 
aid to the king. Being generally, too, 
more favourable to his power, their deputies 
seem sometimes to have been employed by 
him as a counterbalance in these assemblies 
to the authority of the great lords. Hence 
the origin of the representation of burghs in 
the states-general of all great monarchies in 
Order and good government, and along 
with them the liberty and security of individuals
were in this manner established in cities
at a time when the occupiers of land in the 
country, were exposed to every sort of violence
But men in this defenceless state naturally 
content themselves with their necessary 
subsistence; because, to acquire more, might 
only tempt the injustice of their oppressors
On the contrary, when they are secure of enjoying 
the fruits of their industry, they naturally 
exert it to better their condition, and to 
acquire not only the necessaries, but the conveniencies 
and elegancies of life. That industry, 
therefore, which aims at something