orders in the society is, like that of menial 
servants, unproductive of any value, and does 
not fix or realize itself in any permanent subject, 
or vendible commodity, which endures 
after that labour is past, and for which an 
equal quantity of labour could afterwards be 
procured. The sovereign, for example, with 
all the officers both of justice and war who 
serve under him, the whole army and navy
are unproductive labourers. They are the 
servants of the public, and are maintained by 
a part of the annual produce of the industry 
of other people. Their service, how honourable
how useful, or how necessary soever
produces nothing for which an equal quantity 
of service can afterwards be procured. The 
protection, security, and defence, of the commonwealth
the effect of their labour this year
will not purchase its protection, security, and 
defence, for the year to come. In the same 
class must be ranked, some both of the gravest 
and most important, and some of the most 
frivolous professions; churchmen, lawyers
physicians, men of letters of all kinds; players
buffoons, musicians, opera-singers, opera-dancers
&c. The labour of the meanest of 
these has a certain value, regulated by the 
very same principles which regulate that of 
every other sort of labour; and that of the 
noblest and most useful produces nothing 
which could afterwards purchase or procure 
an equal quantity of labour. Like the declamation 
of the actor, the harangue of the 
orator, or the tune of the musician, the work 
of all of them perishes in the very instant of 
its production
Both productive and unproductive labourers
and those who do not labour at all, are 
all equally maintained by the annual produce 
of the land and labour of the country. This 
produce, how great soever, can never be infinite
but must have certain limits. According, 
therefore, as a smaller or greater proportion 
of it is in any one year employed in maintaining 
unproductive hands, the more in the 
one case, and the less in the other, will remain 
for the productive, and the next year's 
produce will be greater or smaller accordingly; 
the whole annual produce, if we except 
the spontaneous productions of the earth, being 
the effect of productive labour
Though the whole annual produce of the 
land and labour of every country is no doubt 
ultimately destined for supplying the consumption 
of its inhabitants, and for procuring 
a revenue to them; yet when it first comes 
either from the ground, or from the hands of 
the productive labourers, it naturally divides 
itself into two parts. One of them, and frequently 
the largest, is, in the first place, destined 
for replacing a capital, or for renewing 
the provisions, materials, and finished work
which had been withdrawn from a capital; the 
other for constituting a revenue either to the 
owner of this capital, as the profit of his stock
or to some other person, as the rent of his 
land. Thus, of the produce of land, one part 
replaces the capital of the farmer; the other 
pays his profit and the rent of the landlord
and thus constitutes a revenue both to the 
owner of this capital, as the profits of his stock
and to some other person as the rent of his 
land. Of the produce of a great manufactory, 
in the same manner, one part, and that always 
the largest, replaces the capital of the undertaker 
of the work; the other pays his profit
and thus constitutes a revenue to the owner 
of this capital
That part of the annual produce of the land 
and labour of any country which replaces
capital, never is immediately employed to maintain 
any but productive hands. It pays the 
wages of productive labour only. That which 
is immediately destined for constituting a revenue
either as profit or as rent, may maintain 
indifferently either productive or unproductive 
Whatever part of his stock a man employs 
as a capital, he always expects it to be replaced 
to him with a profit. He employs it, 
therefore, in maintaining productive hands 
only; and after having served in the function 
of a capital to him, it constitutes a revenue to 
them. Whenever he employs any part of it 
in maintaining unproductive hands of any 
kind, that part is from that moment withdrawn 
from his capital, and placed in his stock reserved 
for immediate consumption
Unproductive labourers, and those who do 
not labour at all, are all maintained by revenue
either, first, by that part of the annual 
produce which is originally destined for constituting 
a revenue to some particular persons
either as the rent of land, or as the profits 
of stock; or, secondly, by that part which, 
though originally destined for replacing a capital, 
and for maintaining productive labourers 
only, yet when it comes into their hands
whatever part of it is over and above their necessary 
subsistence, may be employed in maintaining 
indifferently either productive or unproductive 
hands. Thus, not only the great 
landlord or the rich merchant, but even the 
common workman, if his wages are considerable, 
may maintain a menial servant; or he 
may sometimes go to a play or a puppet-show, 
and so contribute his share towards maintaining 
one set of unproductive labourers; or he 
may pay some taxes, and thus help to maintain 
another set, more honourable and useful, 
indeed, but equally unproductive. No part 
of the annual produce, however, which had 
been originally destined to replace a capital
is ever directed towards maintaining unproductive 
hands, till after it has put into motion 
its full complement of productive labour, or 
all that it could put into motion in the way in 
which it was employed. The workman must 
have earned his wages by work done, before 
he can employ any part of them in this manner