to the immediate or speedy establishment 
of a better system: first, to the poverty of the 
tenants, to their not having yet had time to 
acquire a stock of cattle sufficient to cultivate 
their lands more completely, the same rise of 
price, which would render it advantageous for 
them to maintain a greater stock, rendering it 
more difficult for them to acquire it; and, 
secondly, to their not having yet had time to 
put their lands in condition to maintain this 
greater stock properly, supposing they were 
capable of acquiring it. The increase of stock 
and the improvement of land are two events 
which must go hand in hand, and of which 
the one can nowhere much outrun the other. 
Without some increase of stock, there can be 
scarce any improvement of land, but there 
can be no considerable increase of stock, but 
in consequence of a considerable improvement 
of land; because otherwise the land could not 
maintain it. These natural obstructions to 
the establishment of a better system, cannot 
be removed but by a long course of frugality 
and industry; and half a century or a century 
more, perhaps, must pass away before the old 
system, which is wearing out gradually, can 
be completely abolished through all the different 
parts of the country. Of all the commercial 
advantages, however, which Scotland 
has derived from the Union with England, this 
rise in the price of cattle is, perhaps, the 
greatest. It has not only raised the value of 
all highland estates, but it has, perhaps, been 
the principal cause of the improvement of the 
low country. 
In all new colonies, the great quantity of 
waste land, which can for many years be applied 
to no other purpose but the feeding of 
cattle, soon renders them extremely abundant; 
and in every thing great cheapness is the 
necessary consequence of great abundance. 
Though all the cattle of the European colonies 
in America were originally carried from 
Europe, they soon multiplied so much there, 
and became of so little value, that even horses 
were allowed to run wild in the woods, without 
any owner thinking it worth while to 
claim them. It must be a long time after the 
first establishment of such colonies, before it 
can become profitable to feed cattle upon the 
produce of cultivated land. The same causes, 
therefore, the want of manure, and the disproportion 
between the stock employed in cultivation 
and the land which it is destined to 
cultivate, are likely to introduce there a system 
of husbandry, not unlike that which still 
continues to take place in so many parts of 
Scotland. Mr Kalm, the Swedish traveller
when he gives an account of the husbandry of 
some of the English colonies in North America
as he found it in 1749, observes, accordingly, 
that he can with difficulty discover there 
the character of the English nation, so well 
skilled in all the different branches of agriculture
They make scarce any manure for 
their corn fields, he says; but when one piece 
of ground has been exhausted by continual 
cropping, they clear and cultivate another 
piece of fresh land; and when that is exhausted, 
proceed to a third. Their cattle are 
allowed to wander through the woods and 
other uncultivated grounds, where they are 
half-starved; having long ago extirpated almost 
all the annual grasses, by cropping them 
too early in the spring, before they had time 
to form their flowers, or to shed their seeds.[24] 
The annual grasses were, it seems, the best 
natural grasses in that part of North America
and when the Europeans first settled 
there, they used to grow very thick, and to 
rise three or four feet high. A piece of ground 
which, when he wrote, could not maintain one 
cow, would in former times, he was assured, 
have maintained four, each of which would 
have given four times the quantity of milk 
which that one was capable of giving. The 
poorness of the pasture had, in his opinion
occasioned the degradation of their cattle
which degenerated sensibly from one generation 
to another. They were probably not unlike 
that stunted breed which was common all 
over Scotland thirty or forty years ago, and 
which is now so much mended through the 
greater part of the low country, not so much 
by a change of the breed, though that expedient 
has been employed in some places, as 
by a more plentiful method of feeding them. 
Though it is late, therefore, in the progress 
of improvement, before cattle can bring such 
a price as to render it profitable to cultivate 
land for the sake of feeding them; yet of all 
the different parts which compose this second 
sort of rude produce, they are perhaps the first 
which bring this price; because, till they bring 
it, it seems impossible that improvement can 
be brought near even to that degree of perfection 
to which it has arrived in many parts of 
As cattle are among the first, so perhaps venison 
is among the last parts of this sort of 
rude produce which bring this price. The 
price of venison in Great Britain, how extravagant 
soever it may appear, is not near sufficient 
to compensate the expense of a deer 
park, as is well known to all those who have 
had any experience in the feeding of deer. If 
it was otherwise, the feeding of deer would 
soon become an article of common farming, in 
the same manner as the feeding of those small 
birds, called turdi, was among the ancient 
Romans. Varro and Columella assure us, 
that it was a most profitable article. The fattening 
of ortolans, birds of passage which arrive 
lean in the country, is said to be so in 
some parts of France. If venison continues 
in fashion, and the wealth and luxury of