into pasture. The extension of tillage, by 
diminishing the quantity of wild pasture, diminishes 
the quantity of butcher's meat, which 
the country naturally produces without labour 
or cultivation; and, by increasing the 
number of those who have either corn, or, 
what comes to the same thing, the price of 
corn, to give in exchange for it, increases the 
demand. The price of butcher's meat, therefore, 
and, consequently, of cattle, must gradually 
rise, till it gets so high, that it becomes 
as profitable to employ the most fertile 
and best cultivated lands in raising food for 
them as in raising corn. But it must always 
be late in the progress of improvement before 
tillage can be so far extended as to raise the 
price of cattle to this height; and, till it has 
got to this height, if the country is advancing 
at all, their price must be continually rising
There are, perhaps, some parts of Europe in 
which the price of cattle has not yet got to 
this height. It had not got to this height in 
any part of Scotland before the Union. Had 
the Scotch cattle been always confined to the 
market of Scotland, in a country in which 
the quantity of land, which can be applied to 
no other purpose but the feeding of cattle, is 
so great in proportion to what can be applied 
to other purposes, it is scarce possible, perhaps, 
that their price could ever have risen so 
high as to render it profitable to cultivate 
land for the sake of feeding them. In England, 
the price of cattle, it has already been 
observed, seems, in the neighbourhood of 
London, to have got to this height about the 
beginning of the last century; but it was 
much later, probably, before it got through 
the greater part of the remoter counties, in 
some of which, perhaps, it may scarce yet 
have got to it. Of all the different substances, 
however, which compose this second sort of 
rude produce, cattle is, perhaps, that of which 
the price, in the progress of improvement
rises first to this height
Till the price of cattle, indeed, has got to 
this height, it seems scarce possible that the 
greater part, even of those lands which are 
capable of the highest cultivation, can be completely 
cultivated. In all farms too distant 
from any town to carry manure from it, that 
is, in the far greater part of those of every extensive 
country, the quantity of well cultivated 
land must be in proportion to the quantity 
of manure which the farm itself produces
and this, again, must be in proportion to the 
stock of cattle which are maintained upon it. 
The land is manured, either by pasturing the 
cattle upon it, or by feeding them in the stable
and from thence carrying out their dung to 
it. But unless the price of the cattle be sufficient 
to pay both the rent and profit of cultivated 
land, the farmer cannot afford to pasture 
them upon it; and he can still less afford 
to feed them in the stable. It is with the produce 
of improved and cultivated land only 
that cattle can be fed in the stable; because, 
to collect the scanty and scattered produce of 
waste and unimproved lands, would require 
too much labour, and be too expensive. If 
the price of the cattle, therefore, is not sufficient 
to pay for the produce of improved and 
cultivated land, when they are allowed to pasture 
it, that price will be still less sufficient to 
pay for that produce, when it must be collected 
with a good deal of additional labour
and brought into the stable to them. In these 
circumstances, therefore, no more cattle can 
with profit be fed in the stable than what are 
necessary for tillage. But these can never afford 
manure enough for keeping constantly in 
good condition all the lands which they are 
capable of cultivating. What they afford, being 
insufficient for the whole farm, will naturally 
be reserved for the lands to which it can 
be most advantageously or conveniently applied
the most fertile, or those, perhaps, in 
the neighbourhood of the farm-yard. These, 
therefore, will be kept constantly in good condition
and fit for tillage. The rest will, the 
greater part of them, be allowed to lie waste
producing scarce any thing but some miserable 
pasture, just sufficient to keep alive
few straggling, half-starved cattle; the farm
though much overstocked in proportion to 
what would be necessary for its complete cultivation
being very frequently overstocked in 
proportion to its actual produce. A portion 
of this waste land, however, after having been 
pastured in this wretched manner for six or 
seven years together, may be ploughed up, 
when it will yield, perhaps, a poor crop or 
two of bad oats, or of some other coarse grain
and then, being entirely exhausted, it must be 
rested and pastured again as before, and another 
portion ploughed up, to be in the same 
manner exhausted and rested again in its turn
Such, accordingly, was the general system of 
management all over the low country of Scotland 
before the Union. The lands which were 
kept constantly well manured and in good condition 
seldom exceeded a third or fourth part 
of the whole farm, and sometimes did not 
amount to a fifth or a sixth part of it. The rest 
were never manured, but a certain portion of 
them was in its turn, notwithstanding, regularly 
cultivated and exhausted. Under this 
system of management, it is evident, even that 
part of the lands of Scotland which is capable 
of good cultivation, could produce but little 
in comparison of what it may be capable of 
producing. But how disadvantageous soever 
this system may appear, yet, before the Union
the low price of cattle seems to have rendered 
it almost unavoidable. If, notwithstanding
great rise in the price, it still continues to prevail 
through a considerable part of the country
it is owing in many places, no doubt, to 
ignorance and attachment to old customs, but, 
in most places, to the unavoidable obstructions 
which the natural course of things opposes