by the sovereign, the nobles, and the 
priests, and were probably their servants or 
slaves. All the ancient arts of Mexico and 
Peru have never furnished one single manufacture 
to Europe. The Spanish armies, 
though they scarce ever exceeded five hundred 
men, and frequently did not amount to half 
that number, found almost everywhere great 
difficulty in procuring subsistence. The famines 
which they are said to have occasioned 
almost wherever they went, in countries, too, 
which at the same time are represented as 
very populous and well cultivated, sufficiently 
demonstrate that the story of this populousness 
and high cultivation is in a great measure 
fabulous. The Spanish colonies are under 
a government in many respects less favourable 
to agriculture, improvement, and population, 
than that of the English colonies. 
They seem, however, to be advancing in all 
those much more rapidly than any country in 
Europe. In a fertile soil and happy climate
the great abundance and cheapness of land, a 
circumstance common to all new colonies, is, 
it seems, so great an advantage, as to compensate 
many defects in civil government. Frezier
who visited Peru in 1713, represents 
Lima as containing between twenty-five and 
twenty-eight thousand inhabitants. Ulloa
who resided in the same country between 
1740 and 1746, represents it as containing 
more than fifty thousand. The difference in 
their accounts of the populousness of several 
other principal towns of Chili and Peru is 
nearly the same; and as there seems to be no 
reason to doubt of the good information of 
either, it marks an increase which is scarce inferior 
to that of the English colonies. America, 
therefore, is a new market for the produce 
of its own silver mines, of which the demand 
must increase much more rapidly than 
that of the most thriving country in Europe
Thirdly, the East Indies is another market 
for the produce of the silver mines of America, 
and a market which, from the time of 
the first discovery of those mines, has been 
continually taking off a greater and a greater 
quantity of silver. Since that time, the direct 
trade between America and the East Indies
which is carried on by means of the Acapulco 
ships, has been continually augmenting, 
and the indirect intercourse by the way of Europe 
has been augmenting in a still greater 
proportion. During the sixteenth century
the Portuguese were the only European nation 
who carried on any regular trade to the 
East Indies. In the last years of that century
the Dutch began to encroach upon this 
monopoly, and in a few years expelled them 
from their principal settlements in India
During the greater part of the last century, 
those two nations divided the most considerable 
part of the East India trade between 
them; the trade of the Dutch continually 
augmenting in a still greater proportion than 
that of the Portuguese declined. The English 
and French carried on some trade with 
India in the last century, but it has been 
greatly augmented in the course of the present
The East India trade of the Swedes 
and Danes began in the course of the present 
century. Even the Muscovites now trade regularly 
with China, by a sort of caravans 
which go over land through Siberia and Tartary 
to Pekin. The East India trade of all 
these nations, if we except that of the French
which the last war had well nigh annihilated, 
has been almost continually augmenting. The 
increasing consumptions of East India goods 
in Europe is, it seems, so great, as to afford
gradual increase of employment to them all. 
Tea, for example, was a drug very little used 
in Europe, before the middle of the last century
At present, the value of the tea annually 
imported by the English East India company, 
for the use of their own countrymen, 
amounts to more than a million and a half 
a year; and even this is not enough; a great 
deal more being constantly smuggled into the 
country from the ports of Holland, from Gottenburgh 
in Sweden, and from the coast of 
France, too, as long as the French East India 
company was in prosperity. The consumption 
of the porcelain of China, of the 
spiceries of the Moluccas, of the piece goods 
of Bengal, and of innumerable other articles, 
has increased very nearly in a like proportion. 
The tonnage, accordingly, of all the 
European shipping employed in the East India 
trade, at any one time during the last century
was not, perhaps, much greater than 
that of the English East India company before 
the late reduction of their shipping
But in the East Indies, particularly in 
China and Indostan, the value of the precious 
metals, when the Europeans first began to 
trade to those countries, was much higher than 
in Europe; and it still continues to be so. 
In rice countries, which generally yield two, 
sometimes three crops in the year, each of 
them more plentiful than any common crop 
of corn, the abundance of food must be much 
greater than in any corn country of equal extent
Such countries are accordingly much 
more populous. In them, too, the rich, having 
a greater superabundance of food to dispose 
of beyond what they themselves can consume, 
have the means of purchasing a much 
greater quantity of the labour of other people. 
The retinue of a grandee in China or Indostan 
accordingly is, by all accounts, much more 
numerous and splendid than that of the richest 
subjects in Europe. The same superabundance 
of food, of which they have the disposal, 
enables them to give a greater quantity 
of it for all those singular and rare productions 
which nature furnishes but in very small 
quantities; such as the precious metals and 
the precious stones, the great objects of the 
competition of the rich. Though the mines