would be willing to pay the whole rent, profit
and wages, necessary for preparing and 
bringing them thither, according to the ordinary 
rate, or according to the rate at which they 
are paid in common vineyards. The whole 
quantity, therefore, can be disposed of to those 
who are willing to pay more, which necessarily 
raises their price above that of common 
wine. The difference is greater or less, according 
as the fashionableness and scarcity of 
the wine render the competition of the buyers 
more or less eager. Whatever it be, the greater 
part of it goes to the rent of the landlord
For though such vineyards are in general 
more carefully cultivated than most others, 
the high price of the wine seems to be, not so 
much the effect, as the cause of this careful 
cultivation. In so valuable a produce, the 
loss occasioned by negligence is so great, as 
to force even the most careless to attention
A small part of this high price, therefore, is 
sufficient to pay the wages of the extraordinary 
labour bestowed upon their cultivation
and the profits of the extraordinary stock 
which puts that labour into motion. 
The sugar colonies possessed by the European 
nations in the West Indies may be compared 
to those precious vineyards. Their whole 
produce falls short of the effectual demand of 
Europe, and can be disposed of to those who 
are willing to give more than what is sufficient 
to pay the whole rent, profit, and wages, 
necessary for preparing and bringing it to 
market, according to the rate at which they 
are commonly paid by any other produce. In 
Cochin China, the finest white sugar generally 
sells for three piastres the quintal, about 
thirteen shillings and sixpence of our money, 
as we are told by Mr Poivre[14], a very careful 
observer of the agriculture of that country. 
What is there called the quintal, weighs from 
a hundred and fifty to two hundred Paris 
pounds, or a hundred and seventy-five Paris 
pounds at a medium, which reduces the price 
of the hundred weight English to about eight 
shillings sterling; not a fourth part of what 
is commonly paid for the brown or muscovada 
sugars imported from our colonies, and 
not a sixth part of what is paid for the finest 
white sugar. The greater part of the cultivated 
lands in Cochin China are employed in 
producing corn and rice, the food of the great 
body of the people. The respective prices of 
corn, rice, and sugar, are there probably in 
the natural proportion, or in that which naturally 
takes place in the different crops of the 
greater part of cultivated land, and which recompenses 
the landlord and farmer, as nearly 
as can be computed, according to what is 
usually the original expense of improvement
and the annual expense of cultivation. But 
in our sugar colonies, the price of sugar bears 
no such proportion to that of the produce of 
a rice or corn field either in Europe or America
It is commonly said that a sugar planter 
expects that the rum and the molasses should 
defray the whole expense of his cultivation
and that his sugar should be all clear profit
If this be true, for I pretend not to affirm it, 
it is as if a corn farmer expected to defray 
the expense of his cultivation with the chaff 
and the straw, and that the grain should be 
all clear profit. We see frequently societies 
of merchants in London, and other trading 
towns, purchase waste lands in our sugar colonies
which they expect to improve and cultivate 
with profit, by means of factors and agents, 
notwithstanding the great distance and 
the uncertain returns, from the defective administration 
of justice in those countries. Nobody 
will attempt to improve and cultivate in 
the same manner the most fertile lands of 
Scotland, Ireland, or the corn provinces of 
North America, though, from the more exact 
administration of justice in these countries, 
more regular returns might be expected
In Virginia and Maryland, the cultivation 
of tobacco is preferred, as most profitable, to 
that of corn. Tobacco might be cultivated 
with advantage through the greater part of 
Europe; but, in almost every part of Europe, 
it has become a principal subject of taxation; 
and to collect a tax from every different farm 
in the country where this plant might happen 
to be cultivated, would be more difficult, it 
has been supposed, than to levy one upon its 
importation at the custom-house. The cultivation 
of tobacco has, upon this account, been 
most absurdly prohibited through the greater 
part of Europe, which necessarily gives a sort 
of monopoly to the countries where it is allowed; 
and as Virginia and Maryland produce the 
greatest quantity of it, they share largely
though with some competitors, in the advantage 
of this monopoly. The cultivation of tobacco
however, seems not to be so advantageous 
as that of sugar. I have never even 
heard of any tobacco plantation that was improved 
and cultivated by the capital of merchants 
who resided in Great Britain; and our 
tobacco colonies send us home no such wealthy 
planters as we see frequently arrive from 
our sugar islands. Though, from the preference 
given in those colonies to the cultivation 
of tobacco above that of corn, it would appear 
that the effectual demand of Europe for tobacco 
is not completely supplied, it probably 
is more nearly so than that for sugar; and 
though the present price of tobacco is probably 
more than sufficient to pay the whole rent
wages, and profit, necessary for preparing and 
bringing it to market, according to the rate at 
which they are commonly paid in corn land
it must not be so much more as the present 
price of sugar. Our tobacco planters, accordingly, 
have shewn the same fear of the 
superabundance of tobacco, which the proprietors 
of the old vineyards in France have of