pay the ordinary profit to the farmer or the 
owner of the herd or flock, but to afford some 
small rent to the landlord. The rent increases 
in proportion to the goodness of the pasture
The same extent of ground not only maintains 
a greater number of cattle, but as they 
are brought within a smaller compass, less labour 
becomes requisite to tend them, and to 
collect their produce. The landlord gains 
both ways; by the increase of the produce
and by the diminution of the labour which 
must be maintained out of it. 
The rent of land not only varies with its 
fertility, whatever be its produce, but with its 
situation, whatever be its fertility. Land in 
the neighbourhood of a town gives a greater 
rent than land equally fertile in a distant part 
of the country. Though it may cost no more 
labour to cultivate the one than the other, it 
must always cost more to bring the produce 
of the distant land to market. A greater 
quantity of labour, therefore, must be maintained 
out of it; and the surplus, from which 
are drawn both the profit of the farmer and 
the rent of the landlord, must be diminished
But in remote parts of the country, the rate 
of profit, as has already been shewn, is generally 
higher than in the neighbourhood of a 
large town. A smaller proportion of this diminished 
surplus, therefore, must belong to 
the landlord
Good roads, canals, and navigable rivers
by diminishing the expense of carriage, put 
the remote parts of the country more nearly 
upon a level with those in the neighbourhood 
of the town. They are upon that account the 
greatest of all improvements. They encourage 
the cultivation of the remote, which must 
always be the most extensive circle of the 
country. They are advantageous to the town 
by breaking down the monopoly of the country 
in its neighbourhood. They are advantageous 
even to that part of the country
Though they introduce some rival commodities 
into the old market, they open many new 
markets to its produce. Monopoly, besides, 
is a great enemy to good management, which 
can never be universally established, but in 
consequence of that free and universal competition 
which forces every body to have recourse 
to it for the sake of self-defence. It 
is not more than fifty years ago, that some of 
the counties in the neighbourhood of London 
petitioned the parliament against the extension 
of the turnpike roads into the remoter 
counties. Those remoter counties, they pretended
from the cheapness of labour, would 
be able to sell their grass and corn cheaper in 
the London market than themselves, and would 
thereby reduce their rents, and ruin their cultivation
Their rents, however, have risen
and their cultivation has been improved since 
that time
A corn field of moderate fertility produces 
a much greater quantity of food for man, than 
the best pasture of equal extent. Though its 
cultivation requires much more labour, yet the 
surplus which remains after replacing the seed 
and maintaining all that labour, is likewise 
much greater. If a pound of butcher's meat
therefore, was never supposed to be worth more 
than a pound of bread, this greater surplus 
would everywhere be of greater value and 
constitute a greater fund, both for the profit 
of the farmer and the rent of the landlord. It 
seems to have done so universally in the rude 
beginnings of agriculture
But the relative values of those two different 
species of food, bread and butcher's meat
are very different in the different periods of 
agriculture. In its rude beginnings, the unimproved 
wilds, which then occupy the far 
greater part of the country, are all abandoned 
to cattle. There is more butcher's meat than 
bread; and bread, therefore, is the food for 
which there is the greatest competition, and 
and which consequently brings the greatest price
At Buenos Ayres, we are told by Ulloa, four 
reals, one-and-twenty pence halfpenny sterling, 
was, forty or fifty years ago, the ordinary price 
of an ox, chosen from a herd of two or three 
hundred. He says nothing of the price of 
bread, probably because he found nothing remarkable 
about it. An ox there, he says, 
costs little more than the labour of catching 
him. But corn can nowhere be raised without 
a great deal of labour; and in a country 
which lies upon the river Plate, at that time 
the direct road from Europe to the silver 
mines of Potosi, the money-price of labour 
could be very cheap. It is otherwise when 
cultivation is extended over the greater part 
of the country. There is then more bread than 
butcher's meat. The competition changes its 
direction, and the price of butcher's meat becomes 
greater than the price of bread
By the extension, besides, of cultivation
the unimproved wilds become insufficient to 
supply the demand for butcher's meat. A 
great part of the cultivated lands must be employed 
in rearing and fattening cattle; of which 
the price, therefore, must be sufficient to pay
not only the labour necessary for tending them, 
but the rent, which the landlord, and the profit 
which the farmer, could have drawn from 
such land employed in tillage. The cattle 
bred upon the most uncultivated moors, when 
brought to the same market, are, in proportion 
to their weight or goodness, sold at the 
same price as these which are reared upon the 
most improved land. The proprietors of those 
moors profit by it, and raise the rent of their 
land in proportion to the price of their cattle
It is not more than a century ago, that in 
many parts of the Highlands of Scotland
butcher's meat was as cheap or cheaper than 
even bread made of oatmeal. The Union 
opened the market of England to the Highland 
cattle. Their ordinary price, at present
is about three times greater than at the beginning