Carneades, too, was a Babylonian by birth; 
and as there never was a people more jealous 
of admitting foreigners to public offices than 
the Athenians, their consideration for him 
must have been very great
This inequality is, upon the whole, perhaps 
rather advantageous than hurtful to the public
It may somewhat degrade the profession 
of a public teacher; but the cheapness of literary 
education is surely an advantage which 
greatly overbalances this trifling inconveniency
The public, too, might derive still 
greater benefit from it, if the constitution of 
those schools and colleges, in which education 
is carried on, was more reasonable than it is 
at present through the greater part of Europe
Thirdly, the policy of Europe, by obstructing 
the free circulation of labour and stock, 
both from employment to employment, and 
from place to place, occasions, in some cases
a very inconvenient inequality in the whole of 
the advantages and disadvantages of their different 
The statute of apprenticeship obstructs the 
free circulation of labour from one employment 
to another, even in the same place
The exclusive privileges of corporations obstruct 
it from one place to another, even in 
the same employment. 
It frequently happens, that while high 
wages are given to the workmen in one manufacture
those in another are obliged to content 
themselves with bare subsistence. The 
one is in an advancing state, and has therefore 
a continual demand for new hands; the 
other is in a declining state, and the superabundance 
of hands is continually increasing
Those two manufactures may sometimes be 
in the same town, and sometimes in the same 
neighbourhood, without being able to lend 
the least assistance to one another. The statute 
of apprenticeship may oppose it in the 
one case, and both that and an exclusive corporation 
in the other. In many different manufactures
however, the operations are so 
much alike, that the workmen could easily 
change trades with one another, if those absurd 
laws did not hinder them. The arts of 
weaving plain linen and plain silk, for example, 
are almost entirely the same. That of 
weaving plain woollen is somewhat different; 
but the difference is so insignificant, that 
either a linen or a silk weaver might become 
a tolerable workman in a very few days. If 
any of those three capital manufactures, therefore, 
were decaying, the workmen might find 
a resource in one of the other two which was 
in a more prosperous condition; and their 
wages would neither rise too high in the 
thriving, nor sink too low in the decaying manufacture
The linen manufacture, indeed, 
is in England, by a particular statute, open 
to every body; but as it is not much cultivated 
through the greater part of the country, it 
can afford no general resource to the workmen 
of other decaying manufactures, who, 
wherever the statute of apprenticeship takes 
place, have no other choice, but either to come 
upon the parish, or to work as common labourers
for which, by their habits, they are 
much worse qualified than for any sort of manufacture 
that bears any resemblance to their 
own. They generally, therefore, chuse to 
come upon the parish
Whatever obstructs the free circulation of 
labour from one employment to another, obstructs 
that of stock likewise; the quantity of 
stock which can be employed in any branch 
of business depending very much upon that 
of the labour which can be employed in it. 
Corporation laws, however, give less obstruction 
to the free circulation of stock from one 
place to another, than to that of labour. It 
is everywhere much easier for a wealthy 
merchant to obtain the privilege of trading in 
a town-corporate, than for a poor artificer to 
obtain that of working in it. 
The obstruction which corporation laws 
give to the free circulation of labour is common, 
I believe, to every part of Europe. 
That which is given to it by the poor laws is, 
so far as I know, peculiar to England. It 
consists in the difficulty which a poor man 
finds in obtaining a settlement, or even in being 
allowed to exercise his industry in any 
parish but that to which he belongs. It is 
the labour of artificers and manufacturers 
only of which the free circulation is obstructed 
by corporation laws. The difficulty of obtaining 
settlements obstructs even that of common 
labour. It may be worth while to give 
some account of the rise, progress, and present 
state of this disorder, the greatest, perhaps, 
of any in the police of England
When, by the destruction of monasteries, the 
poor had been deprived of the charity of those 
religious houses, after some other ineffectual 
attempts for their relief, it was enacted, by the 
43d of Elizabeth, c. 2. that every parish 
should be bound to provide for its own poor
and that overseers of the poor should be annually 
appointed, who, with the church-wardens
should raise, by a parish rate, competent sums 
for this purpose. 
By this statute, the necessity of providing 
for their own poor was indispensably imposed 
upon every parish. Who were to be considered 
as the poor of each parish became, 
therefore, a question of some importance. 
This question, after some variation, was at 
last determined by the 13th and 14th of 
Charles II. when it was enacted, that forty 
days undisturbed residence should gain any 
person a settlement in any parish; but that 
within that time it should be lawful for two 
justices of the peace, upon complaint made 
by the church-wardens or overseers of the 
poor, to remove any new inhabitant to the 
parish where he was last legally settled; unless 
he either rented a tenement of ten pounds