and not by his lodgers. Whereas at Paris and 
Edinburgh, people who let lodgings have 
commonly no other means of subsistence; and 
the price of the lodging must pay, not only 
the rent of the house, but the whole expense 
of the family
Part IIInequalities occasioned by the 
Policy of Europe
Such are the inequalities in the whole of the 
advantages and disadvantages of the different 
employments of labour and stock, which the 
defect of any of the three requisites above 
mentioned must occasion, even where there is 
the most perfect liberty. But the policy of 
Europe, by not leaving things at perfect liberty
occasions other inequalities of much 
greater importance. 
It does this chiefly in the three following 
ways. First, by restraining the competition 
in some employments to a smaller number 
than would otherwise be disposed to enter 
into them; secondly, by increasing it in others 
beyond what it naturally would be; and, 
thirdly, by obstructing the free circulation of 
labour and stock, both from employment to 
employment, and from place to place
First, The policy of Europe occasions a very 
important inequality in the whole of the advantages 
and disadvantages of the different 
employments of labour and stock, by restraining 
the competition in some employments to 
a smaller number than might otherwise be disposed 
to enter into them. 
The exclusive privileges of corporations are 
the principal means it makes use of for this 
The exclusive privilege of an incorporated 
trade necessarily restrains the competition, in 
the town where it is established, to those who 
are free of the trade. To have served an apprenticeship 
in the town, under a master properly 
qualified, is commonly the necessary requisite 
for obtaining this freedom. The bye-laws 
of the corporation regulate sometimes 
the number of apprentices which any master 
is allowed to have, and almost always the 
number of years which each apprentice is obliged 
to serve. The intention of both regulations 
is to restrain the competition to a much 
smaller number than might otherwise be disposed 
to enter into the trade. The limitation 
of the number of apprentices restrains it directly. 
A long term of apprenticeship restrains 
it more indirectly, but as effectually, by increasing 
the expense of education
In Sheffield, no master cutler can have more 
than one apprentice at a time, by a bye-law of 
the corporation. In Norfolk and Norwich
no master weaver can have more than two apprentices
under pain of forfeiting five pounds 
a-month to the king. No master hatter can 
have more than two apprentices anywhere in 
England, or in the English plantations, under 
pain of forfeiting five pounds a-month
half to the king, and half to him who shall 
sue in any court of record. Both these regulations
though they have been confirmed by 
a public law of the kingdom, are evidently 
dictated by the same corporation-spirit which 
enacted the bye-law of Sheffield. The silk-weavers 
in London had scarce been incorporated 
a year, when they enacted a bye-law
restraining any master from having more than 
two apprentices at a time. It required a particular 
act of parliament to rescind this bye-law
Seven years seem anciently to have been, 
all over Europe, the usual term established 
for the duration of apprenticeships in the 
greater part of incorporated trades. All such 
incorporations were anciently called universities
which, indeed, is the proper Latin name 
for any incorporation whatever. The university 
of smiths, the university of tailors, &c. 
are expressions which we commonly meet with 
in the old charters of ancient towns. When 
those particular incorporations, which are now 
peculiarly called universities, were first established
the term of years which it was necessary 
to study, in order to obtain the degree of 
master of arts, appears evidently to have been 
copied from the term of apprenticeship in 
common trades, of which the incorporations 
were much more ancient. As to have wrought 
seven years under a master properly qualified
was necessary, in order to entitle any person to 
become a master, and to have himself apprentices 
in a common trade; so to have studied 
seven years under a master properly qualified
was necessary to entitle him to become a master
teacher, or doctor (words anciently synonymous), 
in the liberal arts, and to have scholars 
or apprentices (words likewise originally 
synonymous) to study under him. 
By the 5th of Elizabeth, commonly called 
the Statute of Apprenticeship, it was enacted
that no person should, for the future, exercise 
any trade, craft, or mystery, at that time exercised 
in England, unless he had previously 
served to it an apprenticeship of seven years 
at least; and what before had been the bye-law 
of many particular corporations, became 
in England the general and public law of all 
trades carried on in market towns. For though 
the words of the statute are very general, and 
seem plainly to include the whole kingdom
by interpretation its operation has been limited 
to market towns; it having been held that, 
in country villages, a person may exercise several 
different trades, though he has not served 
a seven years apprenticeship to each, they being 
necessary for the conveniency of the inhabitants, 
and the number of people frequently 
not being sufficient to supply each with a 
particular set of hands
By a strict interpretation of the words, too, 
the operation of this statute has been limited