easier. A journeyman weaver earns less than 
a journeyman smith. His work is not always 
easier, but it is much cleanlier. A journeyman 
blacksmith, though an artificer, seldom 
earns so much in twelve hours, as a collier
who is only a labourer, does in eight. His 
work is not quite so dirty, is less dangerous, 
and is carried on in day-light, and above 
ground. Honour makes a great part of the 
reward of all honourable professions. In point 
of pecuniary gain, all things considered, they 
are generally under-recompensed, as I shall 
endeavour to shew by and by. Disgrace has 
the contrary effect. The trade of a butcher 
is a brutal and an odious business; but it is 
in most places more profitable than the greater 
part of common trades. The most detestable 
of all employments, that of public executioner, 
is, in proportion to the quantity of 
work done, better paid than any common trade 
Hunting and fishing, the most important 
employments of mankind in the rude state of 
society, become, in its advanced state, their 
most agreeable amusements, and they pursue 
for pleasure what they once followed from necessity
In the advanced state of society, 
therefore, they are all very poor people who 
follow as a trade, what other people pursue as 
a pastime. Fishermen have been so since the 
time of Theocritus[11]. A poacher is everywhere 
a very poor man in Great Britain. In 
countries where the rigour of the law suffers 
no poachers, the licensed hunter is not in a 
much better condition. The natural taste for 
those employments makes more people follow 
them, than can live comfortably by them; and 
the produce of their labour, in proportion to 
its quantity, comes always too cheap to market, 
to afford any thing but the most scanty 
subsistence to the labourers
Disagreeableness and disgrace affect the 
profits of stock in the same manner as the 
wages of labour. The keeper of an inn or 
tavern, who is never master of his own house, 
and who is exposed to the brutality of every 
drunkard, exercises neither a very agreeable 
nor a very creditable business. But there is 
scarce any common trade in which a small 
stock yields so great a profit. 
Secondly, the wages of labour vary with the 
easiness and cheapness, or the difficulty and 
expense, of learning the business
When any expensive machine is erected
the extraordinary work to be performed by it 
before it is worn out, it must be expected, will 
replace the capital laid out upon it, with at 
least the ordinary profits. A man educated 
at the expense of much labour and time to any 
of those employments which require extraordinary 
dexterity and skill, may be compared 
to one of those expensive machines. The 
work which he learns to perform, it must be 
expected, over and above the usual wages of 
common labour, will replace to him the whole 
expense of his education, with at least the ordinary 
profits of an equally valuable capital. 
It must do this too in a reasonable time, regard 
being had to the very uncertain duration 
of human life, in the same manner as to the 
more certain duration of the machine
The difference between the wages of skilled 
labour and those of common labour, is founded 
upon this principle
The policy of Europe considers the labour 
of all mechanics, artificers, and manufacturers, 
as skilled labour; and that of all country labourers 
as common labour. It seems to suppose 
that of the former to be of a more nice 
and delicate nature than that of the latter. It 
is so perhaps in some cases; but in the greater 
part it is quite otherwise, as I shall endeavour 
to shew by and by. The laws and customs 
of Europe, therefore, in order to qualify 
any person for exercising the one species of 
labour, impose the necessity of an apprenticeship
though with different degrees of rigour 
in different places. They leave the other free 
and open to every body. During the continuance 
of the apprenticeship, the whole labour 
of the apprentice belongs to the master. In 
the meantime he must, in many cases, be 
maintained by his parents or relations, and, in 
almost all cases, must be clothed by them. 
Some money, too, is commonly given to the 
master for teaching him his trade. They who 
cannot give money, give time, or become bound 
for more than the usual number of years; a 
consideration which, though it is not always 
advantageous to the master, on account of the 
usual idleness of apprentices, is always disadvantageous 
to the apprentice. In country labour
on the contrary, the labourer, while he 
is employed about the easier, learns the more 
difficult parts of his business, and his own labour 
maintains him through all the different 
stages of his employment. It is reasonable, 
therefore, that in Europe the wages of mechanics
artificers, and manufacturers, should 
be somewhat higher than those of common labourers
They are so accordingly, and their 
superior gains make them, in most places, be 
considered as a superior rank of people. This 
superiority, however, is generally very small
the daily or weekly earnings of journeymen 
in the more common sorts of manufactures, 
such as those of plain linen and woollen cloth, 
computed at an average, are, in most places
very little more than the day-wages of common 
labourers. Their employment, indeed, 
is more steady and uniform, and the superiority 
of their earnings, taking the whole year 
together, may be somewhat greater. It seems 
evidently, however, to be no greater than what 
is sufficient to compensate the superior expense 
of their education
Education in the ingenious arts, and in the 
liberal professions, is still more tedious and