the charcoal to be made use of in the smelting-house, 
the brickmaker, the bricklayer, the 
workmen who attend the furnace, the millwright
the forger, the smith, must all of them 
join their different arts in order to produce 
them. Were we to examine, in the same 
manner, all the different parts of his dress and 
household furniture, the coarse linen shirt 
which he wears next his skin, the shoes which 
cover his feet, the bed which he lies on, and 
all the different parts which compose it, the 
kitchen-grate at which he prepares his victuals
the coals which he makes use of for that purpose
dug from the bowels of the earth, and 
brought to him, perhaps, by a long sea and a 
long land-carriage, all the other utensils of his 
kitchen, all the furniture of his table, the 
knives and forks, the earthen or pewter plates 
upon which he serves up and divides his 
victuals, the different hands employed in preparing 
his bread and his beer, the glass window 
which lets in the heat and the light, and 
keeps out the wind and the rain, with all the 
knowledge and art requisite for preparing that 
beautiful and happy invention, without which 
these northern parts of the world could scarce 
have afforded a very comfortable habitation
together with the tools of all the different 
workmen employed in producing those different 
conveniencies; if we examine, I say, all 
these things, and consider what a variety of 
labour is employed about each of them, we 
shall be sensible that, without the assistance 
and co-operation of many thousands, the very 
meanest person in a civilized country could 
not be provided, even according to, what we 
very falsely imagine, the easy and simple manner 
in which he is commonly accommodated. 
Compared, indeed, with the more extravagant 
luxury of the great, his accommodation must 
no doubt appear extremely simple and easy; 
and yet it may be true, perhaps, that the accommodation 
of an European prince does not 
always so much exceed that of an industrious 
and frugal peasant, as the accommodation of 
the latter exceeds that of many an African 
king, the absolute masters of the lives and 
liberties of ten thousand naked savages
This division of labour, from which so many 
advantages are derived, is not originally the 
effect of any human wisdom, which foresees 
and intends that general opulence to which it 
gives occasion. It is the necessary, though 
very slow and gradual, consequence of a certain 
propensity in human nature, which has in 
view no such extensive utility; the propensity 
to truck, barter, and exchange one thing for 
Whether this propensity be one of these original 
principles in human nature, of which no 
further account can be given, or whether, as 
seems more probable, it be the necessary consequence 
of the faculties of reason and speech
it belongs not to our present subject to inquire
It is common to all men, and to be 
found in no other race of animals, which seem 
to know neither this nor any other species of 
contracts. Two greyhounds, in running down 
the same hare, have sometimes the appearance 
of acting in some sort of concert. Each turns 
her towards his companion, or endeavours to 
intercept her when his companion turns her 
towards himself. This, however, is not the 
effect of any contract, but of the accidental 
concurrence of their passions in the same object 
at that particular time. Nobody ever saw 
a dog make a fair and deliberate exchange of 
one bone for another with another dog. Nobody 
ever saw one animal, by its gestures and 
natural cries signify to another, this is mine
that yours; I am willing to give this for that. 
When an animal wants to obtain something 
either of a man, or of another animal, it has 
no other means of persuasion, but to gain the 
favour of those whose service it requires. A 
puppy fawns upon its dam, and a spaniel endeavours
by a thousand attractions, to engage 
the attention of its master who is at dinner, 
when it wants to be fed by him. Man sometimes 
uses the same arts with his brethren
and when he has no other means of engaging 
them to act according to his inclinations, endeavours 
by every servile and fawning attention 
to obtain their good will. He has not 
time, however, to do this upon every occasion
In civilized society he stands at all times in 
need of the co-operation and assistance of 
great multitudes, while his whole life is scarce 
sufficient to gain the friendship of a few persons. 
In almost every other race of animals
each individual, when it is grown up to maturity
is entirely independent, and in its natural 
state has occasion for the assistance of no 
other living creature. But man has almost 
constant occasion for the help of his brethren
and it is in vain for him to expect it from their 
benevolence only. He will be more likely to 
prevail if he can interest their self-love in his 
favour, and shew them that it is for their own 
advantage to do for him what he requires of 
them. Whoever offers to another a bargain 
of any kind, proposes to do this. Give me 
that which I want, and you shall have this 
which you want, is the meaning of every 
such offer; and it is in this manner that 
we obtain from one another the far greater 
part of those good offices which we stand 
in need of. It is not from the benevolence 
of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker 
that we expect our dinner, but from their regard