It is unnecessary to give any example. 
I shall only observe, therefore, that the invention 
of all those machines by which labour is 
to much facilitated and abridged, seems to 
have been originally owing to the division of 
labour. Men are much more likely to discover 
easier and readier methods of attaining 
any object, when the whole attention of their 
minds is directed towards that single object, 
than when it is dissipated among a great variety 
of things. But, in consequence of the 
division of labour, the whole of every man's 
attention comes naturally to be directed towards 
some one very simple object. It is 
naturally to be expected, therefore, that some 
one or other of those who are employed in 
each particular branch of labour should soon 
find out easier and readier methods of performing 
their own particular work, wherever 
the nature of it admits of such improvement
A great part of the machines made use of in 
those manufactures in which labour is most 
subdivided, were originally the inventions of 
common workmen, who, being each of them 
employed in some very simple operation, naturally 
turned their thoughts towards finding 
out easier and readier methods of performing 
it. Whoever has been much accustomed to 
visit such manufactures, must frequently have 
been shewn very pretty machines, which were 
the inventions of such workmen, in order to 
facilitate and quicken their own particular 
part of the work. In the first fire engines, a 
boy was constantly employed to open and 
shut alternately the communication between 
the boiler and the cylinder, according as the 
piston either ascended or descended. One of 
those boys, who loved to play with his companions
observed that, by tying a string from 
the handle of the valve which opened this 
communication to another part of the machine
the valve would open and shut without 
his assistance, and leave him at liberty to divert 
himself with his play-fellows. One of 
the greatest improvements that has been made 
upon this machine, since it was first invented
was in this manner the discovery of a boy 
who wanted to save his own labour
All the improvements in machinery, however, 
have by no means been the inventions 
of those who had occasion to use the machines
Many improvements have been made by the 
ingenuity of the makers of the machines
when to make them became the business of a 
peculiar trade; and some by that of those 
who are called philosophers, or men of speculation
whose trade it is not to do any thing
but to observe every thing, and who, upon 
that account, are often capable of combining 
together the powers of the most distant and 
dissimilar objects. In the progress of society
philosophy or speculation becomes, like every 
other employment, the principal or sole trade 
and occupation of a particular class of citizens. 
Like every other employment, too, it 
is subdivided into a great number of different 
branches, each of which affords occupation to 
a peculiar tribe or class of philosophers; and 
this subdivision of employment in philosophy
as well as in every other business, improves 
dexterity, and saves time. Each individual 
becomes more expert in his own peculiar 
branch, more work is done upon the whole, 
and the quantity of science is considerably increased 
by it. 
It is the great multiplication of the productions 
of all the different arts, in consequence 
of the division of labour, which occasions, in 
a well-governed society, that universal opulence 
which extends itself to the lowest ranks 
of the people. Every workman has a great 
quantity of his own work to dispose of beyond 
what he himself has occasion for; and every 
other workman being exactly in the same situation, 
he is enabled to exchange a great 
quantity of his own goods for a great quantity 
or, what comes to the same thing, for the price 
of a great quantity of theirs. He supplies 
them abundantly with what they have occasion 
for, and they accommodate him as amply with 
what he has occasion for, and a general plenty 
diffuses itself through all the different ranks 
of the society
Observe the accommodation of the most 
common artificer or day-labourer in a civilized 
and thriving country, and you will perceive 
that the number of people, of whose industry 
a part, though but a small part, has been employed 
in procuring him this accommodation
exceeds all computation. The woollen coat
for example, which covers the day-labourer
as coarse and rough as it may appear, is the 
produce of the joint labour of a great multitude 
of workmen. The shepherd, the sorter 
of the wool, the wool-comber or carder, the 
dyer, the scribbler, the spinner, the weaver
the fuller, the dresser, with many others, must 
all join their different arts in order to complete 
even this homely production. How 
many merchants and carriers, besides, must 
have been employed in transporting the materials 
from some of those workmen to others 
who often live in a very distant part of the 
country? How much commerce and navigation 
in particular, how many ship-builders, 
sailors, sail-makers, rope-makers, must have 
been employed in order to bring together the 
different drugs made use of by the dyer, which 
often come from the remotest corners of the 
world? What a variety of labour, too, is necessary 
in order to produce the tools of the 
meanest of those workmen! To say nothing 
of such complicated machines as the ship of 
the sailor, the mill of the fuller, or even the 
loom of the weaver, let us consider only what 
a variety of labour is requisite in order to 
form that very simple machine, the shears with 
which the shepherd clips the wool. The miner, 
the builder of the furnace for smelting 
the ore, the feller of the timber, the burner of