be collected into the same workhouse, and 
placed at once under the view of the spectator
In those great manufactures, on the contrary
which are destined to supply the great wants 
of the great body of the people, every different 
branch of the work employs so great
number of workmen, that it is impossible to 
collect them all into the same workhouse. We 
can seldom see more, at one time, than those 
employed in one single branch. Though in 
such manufactures, therefore, the work may 
really be divided into a much greater number 
of parts, than in those of a more trifling nature
the division is not near so obvious, and 
has accordingly been much less observed. 
To take an example, therefore, from a very 
trifling manufacture, but one in which the division 
of labour has been very often taken notice 
of, the trade of a pin-maker: a workman 
not educated to this business (which the division 
of labour has rendered a distinct trade), 
nor acquainted with the use of the machinery 
employed in it (to the invention of which the 
same division of labour has probably given 
occasion), could scarce, perhaps, with his utmost 
industry, make one pin in a day, and certainly 
could not make twenty. But in the 
way in which this business is now carried on, 
not only the whole work is a peculiar trade, 
but it is divided into a number of branches, 
of which the greater part are likewise peculiar 
trades. One man draws out the wire; another 
straights it; a third cuts it; a fourth 
points it; a fifth grinds it at the top for receiving 
the head; to make the head requires 
two or three distinct operations; to put it on 
is a peculiar business; to whiten the pins is 
another; it is even a trade by itself to put them 
into the paper; and the important business of 
making a pin is, in this manner, divided into 
about eighteen distinct operations, which, in 
some manufactories, are all performed by distinct 
hands, though in others the same man will 
sometimes perform two or three of them. I 
have seen a small manufactory of this kind
where ten men only were employed, and where 
some of them consequently performed two or 
three distinct operations. But though they 
were very poor, and therefore but indifferently 
accommodated with the necessary machinery
they could, when they exerted themselves, 
make among them about twelve pounds of 
pins in a day. There are in a pound upwards 
of four thousand pins of a middling size. 
Those ten persons, therefore, could make among 
them upwards of forty-eight thousand 
pins in a day. Each person, therefore, making 
a tenth part of forty-eight thousand pins, might 
be considered as making four thousand eight 
hundred pins in a day. But if they had all 
wrought separately and independently, and 
without any of them having been educated to 
this peculiar business, they certainly could not 
each of them have made twenty, perhaps not 
one pin in a day; that is, certainly, not the 
two hundred and fortieth, perhaps not the four 
thousand eight hundredth, part of what they 
are at present capable of performing, in consequence 
of a proper division and combination 
of their different operations
In every other art and manufacture, the effects 
of the division of labour are similar to 
what they are in this very trifling one, though, 
in many of them, the labour can neither be so 
much subdivided, nor reduced to so great
simplicity of operation. The division of labour
however, so far as it can be introduced
occasions, in every art, a proportionable increase 
of the productive powers of labour
The separation of different trades and employments 
from one another, seems to have taken 
place in consequence of this advantage. This 
separation, too, is generally carried furthest in 
those countries which enjoy the highest degree 
of industry and improvement; what is the 
work of one man, in a rude state of society
being generally that of several in an improved 
one. In every improved society, the farmer 
is generally nothing but a farmer; the manufacturer
nothing but a manufacturer. The 
labour, too, which is necessary to produce any 
one complete manufacture, is almost always 
divided among a great number of hands. How 
many different trades are employed in each 
branch of the linen and woollen manufactures
from the growers of the flax and the wool, to 
the bleachers and smoothers of the linen, or to 
the dyers and dressers of the cloth! The nature 
of agriculture, indeed, does not admit of 
so many subdivisions of labour, nor of so complete 
a separation of one business from another, 
as manufactures. It is impossible to separate 
so entirely the business of the grazier 
from that of the corn-farmer, as the trade of 
the carpenter is commonly separated from that 
of the smith. The spinner is almost always 
a distinct person from the weaver; but the 
ploughman, the harrower, the sower of the 
seed, and the reaper of the corn, are often the 
same. The occasions for those different sorts 
of labour returning with the different seasons 
of the year, it is impossible that one man 
should be constantly employed in any one of 
them. This impossibility of making so complete 
and entire a separation of all the different 
branches of labour employed in agriculture, 
is perhaps the reason why the improvement 
of the productive powers of labour, in 
this art, does not always keep pace with their 
improvement in manufactures. The most opulent 
nations, indeed, generally excel all their 
neighbours in agriculture as well as in manufactures
but they are commonly more distinguished 
by their superiority in the latter 
than in the former. Their lands are in general 
better cultivated, and having more labour 
and expense bestowed upon them, produce 
more in proportion to the extent and natural 
fertility of the ground. But this superiority 
of produce is seldom much more than in proportion